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Lecture

10 - November 19, 2013.docx

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Department
Linguistics
Course
JAL328H1
Professor
Danny Harvey
Semester
Fall

Description
JAL November 19, 2013 Left stop-sign is Cherokee Right stop-sign is East Kree, from Northern Quebec North American Scripts that are or have been in use in North America Mkmaq – Maritimes North Carolina and Oklahoma – Cherokee Syllabics – Canadian – everywhere in Canada except far West and far South Great Lakes – around Great Lakes Hieroglyphics – most of the symbols are either morphographic (one symbol is one morpheme) I.e. baby – one symbol, one concept A few symbols have one glyph representing a word with lots of morphemes A word for before – looks like key, which has multiple morphemes – unlike other scripts like Chinese, etc. How old? Jesuits send back letters to France; in 1691, Leclerq invented writing system It is unknown what the children Leclerq saw were writing pictograms Some symbosl resemble traditional Mkmaq iconography or symology, no evidence that it was used in writing but elders recall hearing stories there was writing long ago No evidence of writing before hand Kauder’s printing Religious book printed by Austrian This script sometimes called Kauder script Missionaries sent back hand drawing of all the symbols; Kauder made the typeface Only one book printed, only one edition, made it to North America Symbols were familiar – recognized by Mikmaq – indigenous However, Maillard told Mikmaq that can only write Christian stuff People were only reading, not writing anytime – no letters, diaries, etc. No evidence of pre-France symbols A lot of Mikmaq words could not be written in Hieroglyphics – because only Maillard was writing using this script, only Christian topics Sectional-couch-like symbol for “to be”; morpheme is “ey”; you is curly bit; pronounciation is Mikmaq from left to right You he they we are prefixed – like French! Mikmaq symbols following French morphology Not matching Mikmaq morphology Fade away…. Eventually Mikmaq developed their own Latin-based orthography – because could not use Mikmaq hieroglyphics Mikmaq used Maillard’s notes as basis Syllabic vs Moraic system Yi is syllabic writing system – in South West China – single grapheme consists of optional consonant plus vowel plus tone Moraic system – Katakana – significantly smaller than true syllabic system Syllabic system in Japanese – ones with long vowels different symbols than ones with short vowels so much larger script Pretend Syllabic vs Pretend Katakana On left – has one symbol for one syllable Mi is one symbol, one morae; one symbol in katakana Long mi is one symbol, so has two mora, one for mi and one for length in Katakana; in syllabic system, get one symbol; add coda n, which is separate mora, but in syllabic system, just one symbol Difficult to find a true syllabic system – tend to write out each mora, instead of each syllable Cherokee Syllabary th 16 century – many colonizers coming into North America, trying to transcribe the languages No systemization amongst colonizers – would write in their native language Cyrillic for Alaska where Russians were coming across Behring Strait Multiple ways of writing – happening all over North America Cherokee – George, South Carolina, North Carolina – in the mountains there An indigenous writing system is invented Different from everywhere else because writing system came from within – never associated with assimilation Native inventor – writing system is ubiquitous Sequoyah – only spoke Cherokee Around 1800, he gave first shot at developing writing system Stories about process and development of writing sytem – didn’t like pictographic system Switched and started looking at sound system – looking at it phonemically – 20 years later, along with daughter, show up in front of council and present the new invention The story goes that he brings his daughter, who has been taught By 1823, one of the Americans said most of the Cherokees can read and write – within 2 years of introduction, majority were writing diaries, histories, etc. Samuel Worcester lauded with standardized the syllabary – primarily responsible for it working Cherokee Constitution – right side is printed type-set form; left side is handwritten manuscript Serifs = flourishes at end of stems In typed version, many serifs present Serifs also present in handwritten version Shape of the letters Serifs can differentiate letters – can make a difference in how it is pronounced Glyphs in writing system that resembled Latin script Resemble Latin but HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH THE LATIN SCRIPT How did this happen? Originally, the old script didn’t look like Latin script Sequoyah’s original document scan “Pen writing” is today’s cursive He invented cursive first; looks a lot like 1800s American handwriting Print variant Mapped his syllabary to letters in the newspaper – different typefaces in newspaper, same letters, some with serifs, others without – compare headlines vs “SALE” Syllabary order – not used today; Worchester changed alphabetical order to match 2-D chart form Hicks wrote out alphabet as well and followd this order People were learning syllabary in this order traditionally The Press Look of Cherokee is very purposefully designed Today’s ordering – like Japanese system Columns are vowels; rows are consonants Only “ga/ka” have voicing contrast, but in writing, voicing contrast not noted; but this voicing constrast is in the language spoken Criticisms – one is that it doesn’t mark voicing CVCV language but can get glottal stops in glottal positions – cannot write them This symbol can be pronounced in multiple ways Phonemic differences? Length is Tone is – high and falling tone is only difference between the two translations Voicing is – voicing differentiates between third and first person Incomplete? YES From learner’s perspective – all this missing information makes learning language really hard – if want to sit down and learn Cherokee, could be saying wrong things Being the native script of America – lots of people trying the
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