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Lecture

12 - December 3, 2013.rtf

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Department
Linguistics
Course
JAL328H1
Professor
Danny Harvey
Semester
Fall

Description
JAL December 3, 2013 Announcements Quiz 3 is still in the process of being marked Office hours times next Tuesday - go pick up quizzes; but first make an appointment for the Doodle Assignment - circled numbers are to be added up for the final mark - if there is an adding error, please see Professor Harvey TYPOGRAPHY Blackletter - type that looks like the title not trying to mimic Carolingian or Roman styles Use of Blackletter - primarily Northern Europe Blackletter differs from scripts before it - Carolingian miniscule is called minuscule because wrote in lower case Carolingian - Charlesmagne - scriptorium with many Latin documents - difference between capital and lower case letters Type-setting by hand - one case/trunk for upper-case letters; another case for lower- case letters Choice of type affects the way you process the information - same words in two different typefaces, should make the reader feel differently this was what the religious texts were primarily written in - for serious business this is first moveable typefaces in Europe; already have moveable typefaces in Korea! Gutenberg's printing was unborken tradition, but Korean moveable type was discontinued Mass production of books - moveable type allows you to set one page and press pages all day, industrializing production of books First book printed was Bible There are different kinds of Blackletter Textura - types in the previous slides Rotunda Bastarda - KNOW THE TWO KINDS OF BASTARDA Texturda is oldest - seen in Northern Europe - stayed in use in England - often called Old London Bastarda divided in half in Germany into Sdyawadyer and Frattur - Frattur officially banned in 1933 4 families of Blackletter - when dealing in typography - if look at all the letters on the page - look at specific letters to determine which family best letter to look at lower-case "o", which is consistent in all families Textura - "0" is compeltely angular - no round cordners Rotunda "o" is completely round Schwabacher - pointed at top and bottom Fraktur - angular on one side, rounded on another "g" also pretty distinctive Mixed script/National Script In Europe, during early days of print - writing systems in Europe like in India now - each languge in India gets own script; Europe used to be like that If had anything multilingual, need to typeset each langauge differently German - uses German blackletter - LEGATUS NATUS - Trojan style capitals - not Blackletters Militaire and Officiers - French words - so set in French type face If anything multilingual, each language gets its own typeface But this did not continue - presently, difficult to associate a certain type face to nationality Blackletter's end - Hitler banned Blackletter - as Germany was invading other countries, replace signs with Fraktur - but this could not be read by people in invaded countries; abandoned for international practical reasons Blackletter in use today - diplomas Black Sabbath and rap - Blackletter not designed to be read in all caps - stress a word by adding space between lettters In Northern Europe, Blackletter lasted until 1940s; in Southern Europe, different result Parallel movement where people wanted to go back and be as Roman as possible i.e. Washington DC buildings are all pretend-Roman Trajan's Column typeface copied associated with monumental architecture Trajan - classical - a few letters do not add up "S" leans over; "E" is very thin - proportions have changed over time ACtual Trajan typeface changed over time - some of the letters are jarring from what we would expect Typography Terminology Linespacing = "leading" is the proper typographical font When hand is setting head and the strip in middle between lines of text is a strip of lead Point/Picas point sizes have own name - do not say 6 point, say nonpareille Letter spacing Two kinds Kerning - squishing together letters so not a lot of space between them; and separating letters so they do not overlap - BETWEEN TWO LETTERS ONLY Tracking - letter space for the entire word Ligatures - found in Latin script as well as Indic scripts Usually happens because one letter overhangs another letter "fi" is everywhere; the other examples are ornamental Unicode and opentype Everything organized by unicode number - unicode is a catalogue - very thick - supposed to have every grapheme of every script on the planet - each gets own number Neat thing Latin script - all information along the top line What is a serif? Two kinds of fonts - typefaces that are beyond Blackletter - classical movement won, so no more Blackletter Roman uppercase and Carolingian lower case S
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