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Lecture

JAL328 Lec 10 North American Scripts.pdf

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Department
Linguistics
Course
JAL328H1
Professor
C.Harvey
Semester
Winter

Description
STOP North American Scripts OMi kmaq Hieroglyphs Cherokee syllabary Canadian Syllabics Great Lakes syllabary Erstar Unterricht, iber die Wohlthatea Gettes. No Beaver Gulf of ATLANTIC OCEAN Caribbean Sea STOP North American Scripts OMi kmaq Hieroglyphs Cherokee syllabary Canadian Syllabics Great Lakes syllabary Erstar Unterricht, iber die Wohlthatea Gettes. No Beaver Gulf of ATLANTIC OCEAN Caribbean SeaLec 10 North American Scripts March-19-13 10:13 AM Quiz next week: - Know how scripts work and history of it (for final?) - Inuktitut memorize for quiz Left = Cherokee Right = East Cree Mi'kmaq Hieroglyphics - - Everything that was written are religious Lectures Page 1Komkwej wika sikl mijua jij baby e'sk-m-na'q before when not Komkwej wika sikl mijua jij baby e'sk-m-na'q before when not - Everything that was written are religious - Stuff from prayer books - ○ Suckerfish writing - Morphographic (logographic) ○ Some represent single morphemes ○ Others represent bi-morphemic words - Mi'kmaq is an algonquan language - How Old? - Hieroglyphics were first mentioned in the Nouvelle Relation de la Gaspesie 1691 ○ Chetien Le Clercq claimed to have invented the system ○ He saw children drawing marks with charcoal and listing off words as they pointed to them - Le Clercq tried to systematize the hierogylphs - Pierre Maillard, 1735, augmented the traditional inventory of hieroglyphs and wrote prayer books - It is this system which spread throughout Mi'kmaq territory (atlantic Canada) Kauder's Printing - - Christian Kauder had a typeface made in 1866 and printed a Mi'kmaq language religious book (sent to Vienna) ○ 5703 types cast for this one project - Only one shipment ever reached North America - This is the only book ever printed Why Hieroglyphs? Lectures Page 2wasc q ntelitanen iptek iknmulek wla nemulek. to heaven we will go on high if You give it to us here if we could see You wletesenen 'tel eykik tells qataskik we ll be so good there in heaven they are there the worship You iplek elp ninen telisqatulek magantikek emek on high also we we will worshlp You on carth we are th eymin thou art eyk, he is eykik they are eymelk we (exclusive) are Nbo ma mu viex jjux jjo, nzy dldu i qix jjy yyx mu jjo sat. Nbo wox ngop mge si nip bbop hxie nyi jjo, ddix ap bbop hmap zyt hnip mop mu jjo tat X wasc q ntelitanen iptek iknmulek wla nemulek. to heaven we will go on high if You give it to us here if we could see You wletesenen 'tel eykik tells qataskik we ll be so good there in heaven they are there the worship You iplek elp ninen telisqatulek magantikek emek on high also we we will worshlp You on carth we are th eymin thou art eyk, he is eykik they are eymelk we (exclusive) are Nbo ma mu viex jjux jjo, nzy dldu i qix jjy yyx mu jjo sat. Nbo wox ngop mge si nip bbop hxie nyi jjo, ddix ap bbop hmap zyt hnip mop mu jjo tat XWhy Hieroglyphs? - - The "Good" ○ Indigenous support for indigenous system - The "Bad" ○ Maillard lied that only Christian topics could be written ○ Difficult system functioned as a mnemonic for stories already known - This system was already familiar to the people - Hieroglyphics were limited info to hide things from the people - It was a system to remember things that were already known (such as prayers) - People were literate, in the sense they can read but can not write their own stuff A Fully Functional System? - No evidence of pre-French symbols as writing - Apparently incomplete, certain lexical morphemes have no symbol recorded - Only select things were being written out - - (verb conjugation) - Reflects French morphology really well Hieroglyphics Fade Away - Eventually Mi'kmaq people develop their own Latin-based orthography ○ Based on Maillard's own transcription - Hieroglyphs lasted into the 20thc but writing never became a part of people's daily lives in an oral culture - It was something that was read in a very specific environment: Christian/religious - An aid for memory What is a Syllabic VS. Moraic System? Syllabic: Yi - Spoken in SW China Lectures Page 3/mi/ 101H 105 2LI (T /min/ 1a 2H /min/ 10 3H One syllable Three more Heces hok sila wan kunsitku kicilahci ti ske. Heces hok sila wan kun itku kicilar ci ti ske Héc'es hoksila wan k'unsitku kic'ilahci t'i sk é' He ces hoksila wan kunsitku kicilahci ti ske' /mi/ 101H 105 2LI (T /min/ 1a 2H /min/ 10 3H One syllable Three more Heces hok sila wan kunsitku kicilahci ti ske. Heces hok sila wan kun itku kicilar ci ti ske Héc'es hoksila wan k'unsitku kic'ilahci t'i sk é' He ces hoksila wan kunsitku kicilahci ti ske' - Spoken in SW China - Writing system that is in used today?, and is syllabic - Language is CV, no coda-consonant Yi compared - (C)Vt - 829 basic glyphs - one per syllable - No obvious shape-sound relationship - Japanese Katakana ○ (C)V(:n) ○ 48 base glyphs - one per mora ○ Plus a length mark and voicing diacritics Hypothetical Syllabic VS Pretend Katakana** (know for exam/quiz) - Number of morae in them is different - Once you make a vowel long, you have more than 1 morae - Mora = rhythm/ beat - Syllabic writing system only marks syllables Cherokee Syllabary The Early Context - Starting in 16thc, colonizers (esp. Missionaries) began to develop orthographies ○ Latin or Cyrillic based - Into the 19thc, missionizing continued and writing of Native languages expanded - Often each Christian denomination (or missionary) would put their own angle on the system A Cornucopia of Orthography (Lakhota) Cherokee Writing - A diff kind of system emerges in Cherokee country - An indigenous writing system which has never been associated with assimilation - Syllabary, not an alphabet - Native inventor with no ties to European religion or education (alphabetic writing) - Spread without western institutions - Accepted across diff community divisions Lectures Page 4NOTICE. HEREBY forewarn all persens against crediting my wife, DELILAH McCoN. NELL, on my account, as she has absconded without my consent. I am therefore de termined to pay none of her contractg. WILLIAM McCONNELL. 13-g May 15, 1808. FT JUWF ATP PHRA dayss SA Ts Do E.I, 1828. NOTICE. HEREBY forewarn all persens against crediting my wife, DELILAH McCoN. NELL, on my account, as she has absconded without my consent. I am therefore de termined to pay none of her contractg. WILLIAM McCONNELL. 13-g May 15, 1808. FT JUWF ATP PHRA dayss SA Ts Do E.I, 1828. - Sequoyah: monolingual, illiterate - First attempt at writing around 1800 was pictographic - Soon switched gears to look at something phonemic - 1821: publically demonstrated the syllabary to the Cherokee nation with his 6year old daughter Ahyokeh - When he made the presentation - he had somebody give him a sentence; he wrote it on paper, and his daughter read it out ○ Rumors of witchcraft, and trickery/controversy ○ He taught the kids that morning, and then the writing system was accepted really quickly once seen that there was nothing wrong with it 3 years later - Reports of the rapid spread of literacy - "A great part of the Cherokees can read and write" Rev. William Chamberlain 1823 - Diaries, histories, letters, religious texts were all written down Cherokee Nation Priting Press - Printing press and types was churning out materials by 1828 - Government laws - Cherokee Phoenix Samuel Worcester - - He came to Cherokee nation as a missionary in 1825 - Has been often credited for "adapting" or "standardizing" the Cherokee Syllabary - Though he never claimed this himself The Syllabary Example: Cherokee Constitution Lectures Page 5D en TmLE PAGE OF CHEROKEE LAW BOOK /ta/ y /gi/ y /mu/ di-ka-na-wa-dv-s-di D en TmLE PAGE OF CHEROKEE LAW BOOK /ta/ y /gi/ y /mu/ di-ka-na-wa-dv-s-diExample: Cherokee Constitution - - Left = handwritten form - Right = printed form - Shape of the letters - The shapes of many Cherokee characters look familiar but English/Latin values have no relationships to Cherokee - Where did the shapes come from - Sequoyah's contemporaries mention how he went through several phases of modification of the script to make it more attractive - He developed a "pen alphabet" for quick writing - Has been labeled his "original Design" Lectures Page 6cursive variant Print Variant ctary RDWIr*149PΛW BAJODRGTAJY4 SVILEOTO-BO30° JK"nqθGGV.16S SCio.bgh8"APPFH La GJLt,CoBrOIC RyBHSJSC cursive variant Print Variant ctary RDWIr * 149PΛW BAJODRGTAJY4 SVILEOTO - BO30 ° JK " nqθGGV.16S SCio.bgh8 " APPFH La GJLt , CoBrOIC RyBHSJSCThe "Cursive" Whither Print Variant? - Legend has it that Sequoyah found a newspaper one day, ○ Looked at it ○ Liked the aesthetics of the typeface ○ Mapped his syllabary onto characters found on the newspaper ○ Kept some other symbols from an earlier prototype - Looked 18thc Syllabary Order - - e-a-la-tsi-mv-wu-we-li-ne-yi… - Sequoyah always wrote out the sy
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