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Lecture

JLP315 MAY 15.docx

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Department
Linguistics
Course
JLP315H1
Professor
Ailis Cournane
Semester
Summer

Description
JLP315 MAY 15, 2013 Communicative development Ted talk deb roy - Study at mit intensive and in detail look at one child - Longitiudal study - Not cross section – cross section of population to mimic development - Most intensive study of its type on any child - Never before looked at childs intellectual development - Input language – child is receiving aka native language will become it aka mother language - Everything not just what child is saying but parents and care taker - Recording of everything child hears and 8 hours of childs day - And context – who is talking, where it is taking place - The particiaptns who is talking to and hearing involved in converstaiotn - Social hotspots – tracking motion, saw a lot of interaction social hotspots where child is interacting with other people, where child is interacting with caregiver who is full proficient speaker of English - Communication with older speakers in social hotspots create places where input and context are important - Tight feedback loops – what care givers saying and nature of speech to child and when child first used word – showed graph, caregivers more complex speech then more simpler speech and when up on u child use word - A lot of sentences that are complex long MLU meaningful words are long “lots water in morning” long sentences with water and when child is right age simplifying utterances so child can pick up on then when complexity way down using simple utterances with word water the child uses the word - Adult child manner of commmunacting and what the child is taking in and learning - First uses words looked at what son hear see the patter ----u--- - Adults keep simpler and then complexifying once child uses word 3 - Guiding questions - What are early human comm. Behaviours and how does comm. Development support ling deveoplement - Comm. Is other ways of conveying a message - Is manip necessary - How does comm. With others taking in to discover patterns how does that aid language learners in first difficult task - Discover patterns of sound - And then segment speech stream 4 - Comm. Exchange info between two or more people and animals - Danger shriek still comm. Not call it language though - Comm. Is also social – between two or more people - Language requires social transmission – not saying social trans is cause just must be there - Language is intentional system – you have certain intention trying to convey some message - Comm. Behavior – apply to children pre ling children use - Listen - Resp – ie making eye contact laughing – attention and motive responsive - Turn taking – talk then pause and interlocater to respond take turn - Joint attention – two part or more paying attn to same thing – obvious situation is parent reading book with child and attn same thing or toy - Teleological – crying but have intentional goal for crying picked up or fed - Call it intentional comm raise hands to be picked up - Others pointing – to trigger joint attention, 5 - Lang acq process occurs long before first words - Behaviors set stage for latter language learning - Think-pair-share 6 - Watch video and observations - Videos of infants interacting with others - Infant on phone - And two children talk in front of friddeg - How acquire language sounds etc - How resemble adult and differ Video 1 - 2 6 month old infants - In dutch environment - Eye contact - Repetition of words repeating - Father is interacting - Cross sectional view of communactive development - Response to fathers laughter or to each others laughter – responsiveness newborns don’t have - Father enjoy it reinforcing, father holding child - Some control over what sounds they can make controlled sounds not speech sounds yet - Not canonical babbling Video 2 - 6 months older at 12 months - Pausing - Attention, stop walking - Inflection asking question - Pointing to objcts when talking and finding them to talk to parent - Avoid attention to mother - Some words - Daddy and bye – typical early words - Intonation control was good - Positive and negative sounds - Not know what bye meant - Turn taking - Pointing in a non visual conversation - Doesn’t realize words are symbolic – that we have an agreed upon symbol Video 3 - 18 months - Twins may do this behavior more bec input from another devoping child they feed of each other stay in stage longer - Eye contact - Pauses - Repetitive words and behavior - Changing tone when referring low and high - Look at floor and child look at floor - This video almost an regression - One sound - Whole conversation responding to each other - Turn taking well defined – one sound and gesture - Good intonational patterns - Making exclamations to each other - How early stage lead to diversivication of behavior Overview 11 - 2 points not covered - Continued to listen more narrowling and specification of native language - Child take in all language sounds - Later only French stop hearing difference or caring about unused sounds - Early things child is learn that language is meaningful – meaningful bc agreed upon symbol for each meaning The first year - Newborns turn heads to human voices - Not control movement a lot show preference to other humans – social beings - Prefer human lnagauge then language not exposed to in utero - Mother voice then to any other female voice - Can dicrimnate many sounds experiments not done for all sounds - Assume they can hear all contrast but lose ability - 1-2 minths smile when spoken to - 4-6 recognition of own name and first words - 1 year is when use first word - Comphrehsion early then production - Continues to be the case throughout development - 6-8 segment words from fluent speech - 8-10 lose ability to discriminate between sounds not necessary to discriminate between - Japanese can distinguish for both r and l sounds la la and ra ra not care - English make use of r and l - Same time responding name and familiar routines - Recognizing and responding to name – intention not just turn head 14 - The first year - Social interaction not cause - Social role but not cause - Study first chapter tried to raise chimp - Lang acq needs social recognition but tv not - Baby Einstein major failure 15 - What makes comm intentional comm - Not all comm necessary intentional - Infant crying not trying to intend infor to another human being not intentional behavior for specific outcome - Sugarman 1984 – when child makes eye contact when gesturing or vocalizing - Shift focus from object to partner - Gestures – consistent and ritualized - Vocal – con and ritualized - Child pauses – turn taking - Persist – 16 - Part of intentional communication - Child need to figures out there are signs and signifier - Not trivial – child needs to figure out sounds are linked to concepts - Systematic correspondence between signs and signifier - Understanding language is deliberate - Children use protowords – same sequence of sounds for more or less the same meaning - Not related to water may be – but consitantly use it to refer to water Caregiver 17 - Caregivers also have conversations with children even when infant not reposnding in linguistic matter - Even if infant make not response still will talk to infant - Consistent across mothers - What counts as babies turn and sound – latter on any sound or pauses and respond to at 3 months - 8 months – more intentional c omm behaviours stop reposnding to any comm behavior like burps - 12 months – no longer to linguistic sounds not words - Changing as child develops Cds 18 - Ids - Robustly cross linguistic – many languages have baby talk form but not universal - Some cultural not make use of child directed speech – not modify speech when talking to in
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