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Linguistics 2nd Semester Notes.docx

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Linguistics
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LIN100Y1
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Monica Irimia

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LIN 100 Introduction to General Linguistics (2 Semester) nd Ch5: Syntax I (January 7, 2013) Syntax: the analysis of sentence structure Grammaticality "we say the utterance is grammatical if native speakers judge it to be a possible sentence of their language" Prescriptive grammar: telling people how to use the language, how to speak, etc. Descriptive grammar: (what Linguists do) study HOW people use language Transfromational (generative) syntax: usual point of departure for introductions to the study of sentence structure, with the emphasis on universal grammar Universal Grammar (UG): categories, operations shared by all languages; all grammars have: 1. lexicon (mental dictionary)provides list of the language’s words & info about their pronunciation, category, and meaning 2. computational systemresponsible for combining and arranging words in the right ways assumes lexical categories are universal (noun, adj, verb, etc.) all languages have a grammar, and all grammar is equal (no language is “better” than another) 2 principle structure-building operations made available by Universal Grammar: 1. Mergecombines elements to create phrases and sentences 2. Movetransports an element to a new position within the sentence 1. Categories of Words: Lexical categories: (most studied syntactic categories)  Nouns dog, cat, etc.  Verbs ran, sit, eat, etc.  Adjectives quick, pretty, etc.  Prepositions in, on behind, near, etc.  Adverbs quickly, gently, etc. 1 Non-lexical/ functional categories:  Det (determiner) the, a, this, these, no (as in, no books)  Deg (degree) too, so , very, more, quite  Aux (auxiliary) Modal: will, would, can, could, may, must, should Non-modal: be, have, do  Con(conjunction) and, or, but How to decide which category a word belongs to? Can vary according to context eg. He dogs my steps. Dancing is exhilaratingdog is usually a noun, but in this case it is a verb Have you been menued yet? All mimsy were the borogroves. To determine a word’s category, look at… a. meaning b. inflection (affixes) c. distribution Inflection You can determine (but not always) the category of the word looking at what affixes can be added onto them Ex. For a noun: plural –sbooks, chairs, doctors For a verb: past –edarrived, melted, hopped Substitute a familiar word for an unfamiliar word to help decide on the category Ex. He dogs my stepsHe traces my steps Distribution (highly reliable) position in sentence; relationship to other categories determining the types of elements (esp functional categories) with which it can occur (its distribution) Ex. Nouns typically occur with a determiner a car, the wheat Verbs typically occur with an auxiliary has gone, will stay Adjectives typically with a degree word very rich, too big 2. Representing Sentence Structure Ex. Birds sing. The boy caught the football. This book about linguistics starts with a chapter on phonetics. 2 a. Phrase Structure A sentence is not just a string of words - words group into phrases/constituents Phrase Structure Blueprint: XP (binary branching) / \ specifier (spec) X' (pronounced ‘X-bar) / \ X complement (comp) (X=N, V, A, etc.) head always include the X’ level! Always a three-level structure (X, X’, and XP) i. Heads:  N head of Noun Phrase (NP)  A head of Adjective Phrase (AP)  V head of Verb Phrase (VP)  P head of Preposition Phrase (PP) the head is obligatory; a phrase can be made up of a head alone NP VP (this is drawn vertically since no spec or comp) | | N' V' | | N V birds sing ii. Specifiers: English specifiers are at left edge of the phrase (Det, Deg, Adv) if there is a specifier, it is attached to the XP level Ex. Nouns typically occur with a determiner (Det) a car, the wheat Verbs typically occur with an qualifier (Qual) has gone, will stay Adjectives typically with a degree word (Deg) very rich, too big Exs: the boy quietly reads very hot almost in Det N Adv V Deg A Deg P Ex. birds NP spec N comp N birds OR 3 NP N’ N birds Ex. reads quietly VP spec V‘ ADV V quietly reads Ex. very hot AP DEG A’ very A hot Ex. theDETboy N NP DET The N’ N boy iii. Compliments: a phrase with information about the head phrases with complements have a phrase within a phrase! if there is a complement, it is attached at the intermediate X’ level, as a ‘sister’ of the head Exs: in [the room]NP slowly eat [a bagel]NP a book [about linguistics]PP P V N very certainA[of success]PP Ex. on Pthe table]NP PP P’ P NP on 4 DET N’ the N table b. English Sentence Structure Sentence: largest unit of syntactic analysis Every sentence includes a noun phrase (subject) & verb phrase (predicate): Exs. [Birds]NP [sing]VP. {A visitor from Brazil]NP [almost missed the train to Montreal]VP. Sentence = IP (Inflection Phrase) Head of IP is I (Infl) - position for: a. tense: past or non-past (+/-Pst) (always indicate the tense!) b. modal auxiliaries:  can  must  could  will  may  should IP / \ NP I' / \ I VP To draw a tree: (text p.175 recommends from bottom up, but I…) draw from the top down, to keep ‘sister’ nodes at the same level - before you start drawing, analyze your sentence into NP (subject), I and VP (predicate), be clear on the category of each word and how the words group into phrases; ensure that lexical categories head up a phrase - then draw the basic IP sentence structure, followed by the subject NP structure and predicate VP structure; be sure to including all X’ levels Draw: Birds fly. Those girls ate a worm. The man seems very lucky. The monkey might sit on a chair. **Note: the text uses triangles to save space; you should not use triangles** Ex. slowly eat a bagel VP ADV V’ Slowly V NP 5 eat DET N’ a N bagel AP DEG A’ very A PP certain P’ P NP of N’ N success INFLECTION: Ex. Birds might fly IP NP I’ N’ I VP -past N might V’ birds V fly Ex. Those girls ate a worm. IP NP I 6 DET N’ I VP those +past N girls V’ V ate NP DET a N’ N worm 3. Tests for Constituents (XPs) a. Substitution Test i. substitution of a pronoun is evidence of an NP constituent (syntactic units), not just N itself: Ex. The men have arrived. They have arrived. *The they have arrived. Stir the separated egg-whites into the batter. Stir them into the batter. Use pronoun substitution to identify the NPs in this sentence: Ex. The increasing demand for petroleum worried the environmentalists. ii. do, do so replace VPs: Ex. She likes vinegar on French fries and I do too. He said he would vacuum the rugs, and he did so. iii. there, then replace PPs with location/time meaning: Ex. My house is on top of a hill. My house is there. I went to Europe after first year University. I went to Europe then. b. Movement Test some constituents can move to the front of the sentence: Ex. He found a gold key on the bed. On the bed, he found a gold key. She made that yellow dress at school. That yellow dress she made at school. c. Coordination Test always same constituents conjoined by conjunctions: Ex. NP: The students and the teachers enjoyed the film. 7 VP: She kissed her sister but hugged her mother. Explain the differences in grammaticality of the conjoined constituents: He ate the cake and the cookies. *He ate the cake and on the porch. The girls are tired and hungry. *The girls are tired and dancers. the cake and the cookies are the NP constituents, while on the porch is a PP constituent, so you cannot put the NP constituent with the PP one. are tired is a VP constituent while dancers is a NP, so they cannot be formed with a conjunction and fail the coordination test sincealways same constituents conjoined by conjunctions. READING: Chapter 5, pages 139 – 150; try exercises #4-7 p.180 Syntax II (January 14, 2013) Complement Options Subcategorizationclassifying verbs according to their complement options helps ensure that lexical items appear in the appropriate types of tree structures - words are stored in the lexicon (mental dictionary) - what information must be listed in the lexicon? category, meaning, pronunciation Complement Options for Verbs Ex. Devour with an NP complement: The child devoured [ the sandwich]. NP Devour without an NP complement: The child devoured. (Devour is a transitive verb) -certain verbs require certain complements while others require none: transitive verbs take a direct object/NP while intransitive verbs don’t Eg. die doesn’t take a complement, while become does. Ex. The rabbit died. The man became [ veAP angry]. -some words belong to more than one subcategory Eg. eat can take an NP, but can also go without one. Ex. I ate a cake. I ate. -and some words can take more than one complement: called ditransitive Eg. put requires both an NP and a PP complement, and open requires an NP and two PPs. Ex. The librarian put [ the book] [ on the shelf]. NP PP We opened [ tNP door] [ foPPAndy] [ wiPP the crowbar]. 8 Ex. Draw: The children might put forks in the garbage. NOTE: need 3 branches from V’ Zoë gave the child a present. -some verbs can only be followed with particular types of PPs: PP to/with/for/loc Ex. refer PPto the book] is correct while PPrefer with…] is not. -a few verbs can take AP complements Ex. Martha is hungry. NOTE: many verbs can take benefactive PP andforstrument PP with.hese complements are likely not listed in the lexicon, as not specific to that verb SECOND NOTE: some verbs are particle verbs (eg. throw out, put on) where the preposition belongs with the verb. Don’t confuse these with prepositions. (See examples in notebook…) Complement Options for other Categories -particular heads can only appear in the tree structures if there is an appropriate type of complement. Ex. RIGHT: Sick [PPf cafeteria food] vs. WRONG: Sick [ wPPh cafeteria food]. RIGHT: Satisfied [ with cafeteria food] vs. WRONG: Satisfied [ of cafeteria food]. PP PP -knowledge of what type of complements occur with what word is stored in out mental lexicon, since we cannot just determine it from looking at the meaning. 1. Noun Complements may take no complement or different PPs Ø PPof PP of to PP withPabout car, fish, stove fear, love presentation argument Draw: Simon had an argument with Greg about money. 2. Adjective Complements adjectives take no complement or different PPs: Eg. tall, fond, angry, oblivious, bored Draw: Sam seemed unhappy with the test. 3. Preposition Complements not all prepositions can go without complements - most take NPs preposition NP complement Ø complement up I went up the ladder. I went up. beside I sat beside the ladder. *I sat beside. *=WRONG 9 -some can take PP complements (often same as can stand alone): P' I went up onto the roof. He climbed down from the peak. /\ Draw: That cat should climb down from the tree. P PP Complement Clauses smaller phrases within a matrix clause Matrix clause: the larger phrase in which the complement clause occurs Complementizers (Cs): words which take an IP complement, forming the complementizer (CP) phrase  That  Whether  If Complement clause Ex. [The coach knows [that/whether/if the team will win]]. Matrix clause CP C’ IP C that/whether/if NP I’ DET the N’ I VP N -Pst team will V’ V win -any CP can contain a verb that itself takes a complement CP. which is why a sentence like this is possible: A man thought [ tCPt a woman said [ thCP Sue reported [ thaCP 1. Complement of a Verb -introduced by complementizer -sentence embedded in VP: Kate noticed that Jen was late. -clause represented by CP Complementizer Phrase - functions as NP: can be replaced by pronouns: it, something, or what V takes NP complement V takes CP complement The jury knows the facts. The jury knows that the case is complex. I heard the noise. I heard that he might come. She asked a question. She asked whether/if he should come. 10 - CP has complementizer head C, takes IP as its complement: CP / \ C' / \ C IP - CP is in VP where the object NP would be IP / \ NP I' / \ I VP / \ V' / \ V CP -the embedded IP can have a different tense than the matrix clause Draw: The boss said that spouses can come. -CP can co-occur with other NP or PP complements (Table 5.9 p.155) Draw: The TA told the students that the prof will return the exams. -a sentence can have multiple embeddings: Dave says that Fran said that Margo announced that Phil will retire in May. 2. CP As a Complement of a Noun -explains the noun (not in text) NP -the CP behaves like PP complement: / \ Nancy believes the story about storks. N' Nancy believes the story that storks bring babies. / \ N CP -CP attaches to N’, and is part of the NP (try the substitution test) Draw: The claim that ice-cream is nutritious might surprise people. 3. CP As a Complement of an Adjective -explains the adjective (not in text) -the CP behaves like PP complement: A' Richard is sad about Andre. Richard is sad that Andre died. / \ Draw: The manager was certain that the computer would work. A CP NOTE: English can often omit the complementizer, but the CP structure is the same! 11 Eg. The manager was certain the computer would work. Challenge: The producer is afraid that the critics will say the play is awful. READING: Chapter 5 Section 5.2 pp. 151-155 Homework 8 due week of Jan. 21 Syntax III (January 21, 2013) MOVE Operations/ Transformations A. Yes-No Questions how are yes & no questions formed from statements? Consider: Ex. Sam will be here at noon. Max can play the piano. Adults should drink milk. Assumptions -X' schema creates the deep structure DS (looks like active declarative sentence) -other constructions result from movement/transformation: final spoken/written form is surface structure SS 1. Inversion: Move I to C - assume all sentences have CP shell, not just embedded clauses - interrogative sentences have feature +Q in C - +Q feature attracts modal in I to C - everything in I moves to C - leave a copy of I label behind; Note: text leaves copy of +/- Pst behind; this is not necessary - anything that moves leaves a trace t in the original position Note: always co-index t with the moved word. eg. wili …… ti(text doesn’t) arrows not necessary i
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