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Ling Second Half of Second Semester Notes.docx

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Monica Irimia

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Ling 2nd Half of Second Semester Notes Ch7Historical Linguistics March 4 2013concerned with description and explanation of language changeA Change How has English changed from this Old English examplePa sendan hi ham aerenddracan th Then sent they home a messenger8 c English pg221the changes from OldMiddleModern English imply that all components of the grammar from meaning semantics to individual sounds phonology are subject to change1 Causes of Change and VariationArticulatory simplificationSpelling PronunciationAnalogy and ReanalysisHypercorrectionLanguage Contact aArticulatory Simplification simplify consonant clusters by deletion of a consonant Consonant deletion fifths didnt pumpkin sandwich coupon which duct tape by insertion of a vowel in between consonants Vowel insertion aelitaelitbChange through Analogy ReanalysisAnalogy change to follow existing language patternsEg I like to dive Yesterday I dove into the pool Reanalysis change morpheme boundaryEg a napronan aprona nadderan adder an ekenamea nicknameReinterpret singular as pluralEg peasepea singplpeacerisecherryFolk etymology reanalyze unfamiliar morphemes into more familiar onesEx otchekwoodchuckmusquaschmuskrathamburgerhamburgerEx GirasoleJerusalem artichokecLanguage ContactBorrowing borrowing of words from one languagein another due to frequent interaction among languagesdialects native English vocabularyoriginal Germanic AngloSaxon words the most frequent words in Englishnative English English has the largest vocabulary with the most borrowings of any language whyEnglish was in contact with much of the worldso much French in EnglishEnglish taking over French in the wars Renaissance in England brought new Latin wordsChocolateHow might an Aztec word have come into EnglishJubilee Sabbath are originally Hebrew How might they have come into Englishthrough religiondSpelling Pronunciation spelling often reflects older pronunciation speakers reintroduce lost soundseg oftenafn loanwords in French and Latin th pronounced tanthem throne author French loanwords with unpronounced hhabit hectic history horror influence of Latin spelling added back in lsfault assault falcon vault eHypercorrection change in grammar because of perceived prestige value overgeneralization of particular rulesEx latterladderboth pronounced with flapping so a speaker attempting to speak thelanguage might think that the same rule would apply for prodigyand say protigy instead of prodigy Which is correcta Mary is sitting between John and I b Mary is sitting between John and meb is correct although a lot of people would say a is because of overgeneralization of the rule that I should be used in the subject position when saying John and I Therefore speakersattempting to speak the language might assume this is the case for every time they see John and I when in fact the correct form is John and me when this phrase is the direct object 2 Sound Changes
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