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Lecture

Phonology I

12 Pages
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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN100Y1
Professor
K.Kyumin

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Description
101909 1 Lecture 5 Phonology I Todays goal Goals of phonology Analyzing how segments are stored in the brain Phonetics Phonology Concrete Abstract mouth brain Phonology = grammar of sounds I.e., Sounds stored (represented) in the brain These sounds connecting to systematic phonetic variation Phonological knowledge Goals of phonology in linguistics To find out what phonological knowledge is like I.e., How sounds are storedrepresented in the brain How mental representation results in systematic phonetic variation We want to study these in individual languages across languages To ultimately know: What the phonetic knowledge of human beings in general is like E.g., English has a stop in its sound inventory. Italian has a stop in its sound inventory. Japanese has a stop in its sound inventory. Many many languages have a stop in their inventories. Hypothesis: Every language has a stop. 101909 2 Hypothesis: Every language has a stop. There havent been any counterexamples to this statement. Humans have a stop represented in the brain that underlies a group of stop sounds. How sounds are stored in the brain Individual sounds Suprasegmentals Not all sounds pronounced in a language need to be stored in the brain of the speakers of the language. How sounds are stored in the brain Nasalized and oral vowels in English Nasalized Oral [knt] [knt] cant cant [l#] [l] long long Nasalization does not result in changing the meaning of words www.notesolution.comFurthermore, nasalized vowels occur in predictable contexts i.e., adjacent to a nasal consonant Nasalization is not information stored with a vowel in the English speakers lexicon. A result of undergoing process: Vowels are nasalized adjacent to a nasal Lexicon in brain: kn kt Vowels are nasalized adjacent to a nasal Mouth: [kn ] [kt] 101909 3 How sounds are stored in the brain Nasalized and oral vowels in French Nasalized Oral [l] [lo] long prize [l%] [l] flax ugly Nasalization does result in changing the meaning of words. The oral and nasalized vowels are contrastive. Nasalization in vowels does not occur in predictable contexts in French. (Where it occurs is randomunpredictable.) Information about nasalization needs to be stored in the lexicon with vowels in French. Lexicon in brain: lo l Mouth: [lo] [l] Epenthetic consonants in English prince, warmth, tenth [pnts] [wormp] [tnt] How do you know whether these consonants are represented in the speakers mind or not? Our model Predictable elements and unpredictable elements are stored in the brain differently. 101909 4 Predictability Only unpredictable information is stored in the mental lexicon. Predictable information is not stored in the mental lexicon. Predictable materials are produced by undergoing processes prince, warmth, tenth [pnts] [wormp] [tnt] Do these consonants occur in a predictable way? I.e., can we generalize what is inserted when? prince, warmth, tenth [pnts] [wormp] [tnt] Yes A voiceless stop homorganic to the preceding nasal is inserted between a nasal and fricative. Lexicon: prns A voiceless stop homorganic to the preceding www.notesolution.com
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