Class Notes (806,748)
Canada (492,424)
Linguistics (394)
LIN201H1 (9)
Lecture 2

LIN201 Lecture 2 Roots of CE.pdf

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Matt Hunt Gardner

Lecture 2 Roots of CE May-15-13 7:09 PM Lecture 2 No lecture next week at all. Bilingualism - English-French bilingualism in Canada occurs at the national-level ○ Not at the level of individual (p.19)  Except for growing ethnic communities ○ Reflected in a history of government acts and policies  Generally aimed at protecting the rights of French speakers to speak French ○ Founding populations spoke English/ French, and communities have generally remained either French or English- speaking - Founding populations = settlers - 1867** - 1927 ○ Postage stamps became bilingual - 1934 ○ The federal Translation Bureau is established by an Act of Parliament - 1936 ○ Bank notes become bilingual - 1959 ○ Simultaneous interpretation of the debates in both languages begins in the House of Commons - 1963-1970 ○ The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is established and produces its reports - 1969** Lectures Page 1 - 1970 ○ Creation of official languages in education programs - 1974 ○ The Consumer Packaging and Labeling Act comes into force, along with regulations respecting bilingual labeling of consumer products. - 1982** - 1988** - 2002 Important chapters/pages: p.3, 5, 8, 19, 22 Define: Anglophone = English-speaking person, native speaker of English Francophone = French-speaking population, native speaker Allophone = Canadian whose native language is neither French nor English - Historically, NFL was not part of Canada - Dialect is quite different as a consequence - Settlement - those who have settled first To know for final: • Definition Lectures Page 2 • Definition • Examples • Why they exist Canadianisms Section 1.5 won't be tested Chapter 2 - understand the stories, not people or dates - Why they exist ○ Specific input dialects  American Loyalists and mainly Northern British, Irish and Scottish (at first). ○ Sociolinguistic factors  What dialects (thus word choices) are valued in the community ○ Language contact  English, French, native languages, other immigrant languages (Chinese, Italian, etc..) ○ Socio-political and cultural history/reality  Canadian institutions and customs ○ Need to describe/relate to Canadian natural Phenomena  Geography, flora, fauna, weather etc... ○ Others  Canadian inventions or other idiosyncratic reasons (intangible reasons) The Roots of Canadian English Beginnings - Canadian English is one of the oldest transported varieties of English ○ NFL permanent settlements as early as 1497 - Different thanaritime English and Inland Canadian English ○ Different settlement pattern ○ Less autonomous history ○ Isolation - Rest of Canada ○ 1716: Treaty of Utrecht Lectures Page 3 ○ 1716: Treaty of Utrecht  France ceded its territory Acadie (Acadia) to Britain □ Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, PEI ○ 1763: Treaty of Paris  France ceded its territory Nouvelle France (New France) to Britain □ Quebec, Ontario - Britain sent lots of settlers to its new (small) colonies - Colonists were not very different from the colonists further south in what would become the USA ○ Small mix of speakers ○ In all colonies, those closest to the seaboard maintained greater contact with England - Changes in British English have occurred since this time ○ British English became non-rhotic (drop the 'r')  Car vs. "Cah" □ In its nascent stages this was transported to American cities on the eastern seaboard (New England, new York, and the South) ○ The BATH words changed to a back pronunciation  Bath vs. bath ○ The industrial revolution  Trunk vs. Boot - 1776: American Revolutionary War ○ Really a civil war ○ We lost ○ Starts to build the idea that there were people who were North American but not American - We might have expected the boundaries between the USA and British North America to create strong lasting differences  It didn't  The borders were & remained fairly porous - Many refugees fled to Canada during & after the American Revolutionary War - These refugees founded many communities, or became the new majority United Empire Loyalist - The Loyalists brought their culture with them, their local culture including:  Farming, field clearing  Social organizations  Architecture  Schooling  Local government  Ways of speaking - N.Brunswick and N.Scotia used to be one - Vowels in the words: ○ LOT ○ PALM ○ THOUGHT  All these were pronounced the same vowel (called "Lexical sets") - meaning include other words in that set  In most literature its called "cot-caught" or "low back" merger - People from the region that near upper canada and Western Pennsylvania, and Pittsburg FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT - Labov (2001, 503-4), Zelinsky (1996) ○ "first effective settlement"  The influence of new groups entering an established community is lmited  The original group determines cultural pattern of new comers, even if newcomers are more numerous  Consistent w/ the linguistic patterning of American cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Chicago ○ Those who got there first, or was there first, established their way of doing things ○ And other people had to followed through, influence ○ AKA "First-past-the-post" Principle by Sankoff (1980) and the "Founder Effect" by Mufwene (1996) Lectures Page 4 ○ AKA "First-past-the-post" Principle by Sankoff (1980) and the "Founder Effect" by Mufwene (1996) - Canadian governors at the time were worried about lingering republican sentiment among the Loyalists  During border wars of 1812, Americans tri
More Less

Related notes for LIN201H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.