Lec 3: Verbs and Predicates
- Whatever follows the subject is predicate
Canonical Clause structure
What is a canonical clause?
Simplest type of clause/sentence
SUBJECT + PREDICATE (in that order)
e.g. [a dog] subject [chased the car] predicate
- Sentence = complete thought
- Clause = phrase
- This is a sentence:
○ He went to school.
- This is one sentence, 2 clauses
○ After he took a shower, he went to school.
○ (dependent and independent)
- Clauses can be dependent or independent, but sentences have to be independent
Identify the nonstandard usage or grammatical error
- I have to complete three homeworks by Friday.
○ Error = homework is not a count noun, so can not be pluralized
○ Correct: homework assignments
- I don't see cat in the window.
○ Error = determiner is missing, singular and countable must have a determiner
○ Correct: the, a cat
- I just ordered some beers.
○ Error = non count noun, can not have -s after non-count nouns
○ Correct: some beer.
Grammatical category: Verbs
- Verbal noun (gerund):
○ e.g. Smoking is not allowed here.
Smoking = verbal noun, it is a verb but functions as a noun
○ e.g. To stay here is a crazy idea!
Stay functions as a noun, but is a verb
- Traditionally verbs = action but they can be nouns
○ Action is necessary.
Here - 'action' = noun
○ No fighter deals blows deadlier than he.
Blows here = noun
- Verbs = refer to Action and states
○ e.g. lay, seems, resembles, remain, hate, believe
The cat LAY before the fire.
Nancy SEEMS fine today.
Jun RESEMBLES his grandfather.
The house REMAINED unlocked over the weekend.
I HATE chocolate.
Chen BELIEVES in UFOs.
○ Sit, speak, run, read, sing
- But nouns = name actions too
○ e.g. attack, storm, delivery, departure, lightening
- "action" is not exclusive to verbs, and doesn't provide us with a reliable diagnostic for identifying them
- The meaning of a word is often not a good indication of its grammatical category
○ The wind usually BLOWS from the west.
○ He suffered three BLOWS to the head.
Both "blows" refer to an action
First one behave as VERB
Second behaves as NOUN (talk about event as a thing)
- Noun inflection = -s plural
- Function - object = nouns
- Words that can be verbs or nouns
Lectures Page 1 ○ Attack
- FORM of a word gives a good clue about its category
○ MORPHOLOGY - -ion = noun
e.g. ACTION is necessary.
○ e.g. action, satisfaction, complication, participation, petition,
- Scarc ity(N), fish (N)
- En circle (V), bookg (V), mothered (V)
No noun derivational morphology
It can occur w/ nomincal inflectional morphology:
- Skates , skates
It can occur directly after an articlee skate
It can occur as thesubject, object, DO, IO.etc
Thus...although it is no noun-making morphology, it behaves like a noun in all other ways.
It has a derivational morpheme that creates verbs
It can occur with verbal inflectional morphology
- 3rd singular -s (e.g. walks)
It can be made into a command
It can be made negative
Can skate be a verb?
- Use verb test
Can skate be a noun?
- Verb functioning as a noun
Lectures Page 2 -
○ Identifying a verb = semantics, form, function
- VERB FORMS:
Finite verb forms: carry TIME
Non-finite verb forms: carryNO TIME themselves
- Semantics = meaning of a word
- Finite verb = you can tell the time
○ She walks to school
○ It is present time
- Non-finite forms = you cant tell the time
○ She wants to walk to school
○ "to walk" = non finite
○ I am walking.
○ 'am' = tells you the time (present) but "walking" does not
- 'walked' by itself has no tense
○ I ate lunch.
Ate = finite (past tense)
Eaten = non-finite (present? Past? Future?) = irregular past participle (eat-ate-eaten)
○ I have eaten lunch.
'have' = tells you the time
- 'to walk' = infinitive
- 'walk' = bare infinitive
○ Doesn't have time because it comes after modals like - should, could, will
○ You should walk.
- Modals don't have time
- Walk - walked - walked
- Present - past - pastparticiple
○ I walked to school. = finite
○ I have walked to school. = nonfinite
- Main verbs
- Helping verbs
○ Auxiliary verbs
○ Modal verbs
Main verbs and helping verbs
- Helping verbs
Lectures Page 3 - Helping verbs
Auxiliary verbs:BE, DO, HAVE
Modal verbs: will, would, shall, could, can, may, might, must
- The students are waiting outside.
○ Main verb = waiting
○ Are = helping verb / auxiliary
○ Tense of the verb comes from auxiliary
- Most people hate eating fish.
○ Main verb = hate (present)
○ Eating = nonfinite
○ Eating fish = noun / object
- They have been partying all night
○ Main verb = partying
○ Helping verbs = have, been (auxiliary)
- Modals can be helping verbs
○ You should see a doctor.
○ I will open the door.
○ I could ride a bike when I was younger.
- Modals change the meaning of the sentence
- Add meaning to verb
More on Auxiliaries
- Auxiliaries either occur with a main verb or act as a replacement for the main verb
- Auxiliaries always occur with non-finite forms of main verb