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LIN204 Lec 3 Verbs and Predicates.pdf

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Safieh Moghaddam

Lec 3: Verbs and Predicates July-10-13 7:08 PM - Whatever follows the subject is predicate Canonical Clause structure What is a canonical clause?  Simplest type of clause/sentence  SUBJECT + PREDICATE (in that order)  e.g. [a dog] subject [chased the car] predicate - Sentence = complete thought - Clause = phrase - This is a sentence: ○ He went to school. - This is one sentence, 2 clauses ○ After he took a shower, he went to school. ○ (dependent and independent) - Clauses can be dependent or independent, but sentences have to be independent Identify the nonstandard usage or grammatical error - I have to complete three homeworks by Friday. ○ "Homeworks" ○ Error = homework is not a count noun, so can not be pluralized ○ Correct: homework assignments - I don't see cat in the window. ○ Cat ○ Error = determiner is missing, singular and countable must have a determiner ○ Correct: the, a cat - I just ordered some beers. ○ Beers ○ Error = non count noun, can not have -s after non-count nouns ○ Correct: some beer. Grammatical category: Verbs - Verbal noun (gerund): ○ e.g. Smoking is not allowed here.  Smoking = verbal noun, it is a verb but functions as a noun ○ e.g. To stay here is a crazy idea!  Stay functions as a noun, but is a verb - Traditionally verbs = action but they can be nouns ○ Action is necessary.  Here - 'action' = noun ○ No fighter deals blows deadlier than he.  Blows here = noun - Verbs = refer to Action and states ○ e.g. lay, seems, resembles, remain, hate, believe  The cat LAY before the fire.  Nancy SEEMS fine today.  Jun RESEMBLES his grandfather.  The house REMAINED unlocked over the weekend.  I HATE chocolate.  Chen BELIEVES in UFOs. ○ Sit, speak, run, read, sing - But nouns = name actions too ○ e.g. attack, storm, delivery, departure, lightening - "action" is not exclusive to verbs, and doesn't provide us with a reliable diagnostic for identifying them - The meaning of a word is often not a good indication of its grammatical category ○ The wind usually BLOWS from the west. ○ He suffered three BLOWS to the head.  Both "blows" refer to an action  First one behave as VERB  Second behaves as NOUN (talk about event as a thing) - Noun inflection = -s plural - Function - object = nouns ○ Determiners - Words that can be verbs or nouns ○ Color ○ Ham ○ Attack Lectures Page 1 ○ Attack ○ Mourn - FORM of a word gives a good clue about its category ○ MORPHOLOGY - -ion = noun  e.g. ACTION is necessary. ○ e.g. action, satisfaction, complication, participation, petition, - Scarc ity(N), fish (N) - En circle (V), bookg (V), mothered (V) - -ing - -ed - En- Noun Test FORM 1)  No noun derivational morphology  It can occur w/ nomincal inflectional morphology: - Skates , skates 2) FUNCTION  It can occur directly after an articlee skate  It can occur as thesubject, object, DO, IO.etc Thus...although it is no noun-making morphology, it behaves like a noun in all other ways. Verb Test 1) FORM  It has a derivational morpheme that creates verbs  Morphology: - Ify - -en - En-  It can occur with verbal inflectional morphology  Verb inflection - 3rd singular -s (e.g. walks) - -ed - -en - -ing 2) FUNCTION  It can be made into a command  It can be made negative Can skate be a verb? - Use verb test - Can skate be a noun? - Verb functioning as a noun Lectures Page 2 - Identifying verbs ○ Identifying a verb = semantics, form, function - VERB FORMS:  Finite verb forms: carry TIME  Non-finite verb forms: carryNO TIME themselves - Semantics = meaning of a word - Finite verb = you can tell the time ○ She walks to school ○ It is present time - Non-finite forms = you cant tell the time ○ She wants to walk to school ○ "to walk" = non finite ○ I am walking. ○ 'am' = tells you the time (present) but "walking" does not - 'walked' by itself has no tense - e.g. ○ I ate lunch.  Ate = finite (past tense)  Eaten = non-finite (present? Past? Future?) = irregular past participle (eat-ate-eaten) ○ I have eaten lunch.  'have' = tells you the time - 'to walk' = infinitive - 'walk' = bare infinitive ○ Doesn't have time because it comes after modals like - should, could, will ○ You should walk. - Modals don't have time - Walk - walked - walked - Present - past - pastparticiple - e,g. ○ I walked to school. = finite ○ I have walked to school. = nonfinite Verb Functions - Main verbs - Helping verbs ○ Auxiliary verbs ○ Modal verbs Main verbs and helping verbs - Helping verbs Lectures Page 3 - Helping verbs  Auxiliary verbs:BE, DO, HAVE  Modal verbs: will, would, shall, could, can, may, might, must - The students are waiting outside. ○ Main verb = waiting ○ Are = helping verb / auxiliary ○ Tense of the verb comes from auxiliary - Most people hate eating fish. ○ Main verb = hate (present) ○ Eating = nonfinite ○ Eating fish = noun / object - They have been partying all night ○ Main verb = partying ○ Helping verbs = have, been (auxiliary) - Modals can be helping verbs - e.g. ○ You should see a doctor. ○ I will open the door. ○ I could ride a bike when I was younger. - Modals change the meaning of the sentence - Add meaning to verb More on Auxiliaries - Auxiliaries either occur with a main verb or act as a replacement for the main verb - Auxiliaries always occur with non-finite forms of main verb - Auxi
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