Lec 4: Adverbs, Adjectives and Prepositions
7:00 PM Lec 4 Adve...
- Jake's announcing = subject (NP)
- Jake's = NP = determiner
- Pronouns are NP
Lecture (not all lecture slides are on exam, only the ones discussed in lecture need to know)
Do not study slides: 6, 15, 18, 20, 26, 30, 35, 40, 42, 47
Characteristic function: Modifying nouns
Typically denotes properties
e.g. Color, size, shape, worth, age, etc..
e.g. A tiny yellow SWEDISH car.
Melisa is annoyed.
Properties 3 main functions
almost always pre-head modifiers of nouns.
e.g. happy people
complements licensed by particular verbs
e.g. They are happy.
less freq than attributive
only possible in certain constructions..
e.g. afteromething, anyone, nobody..etc
Adjectives have 3 main functions
○ Attibutive = come before nouns and modify nouns (e.g. happy people, fast car, ..) "pre-head modifiers"
○ Predicative = come before be, seem, look, appear, sound .. Etc follow verbs
Compliments = words that come after these verbs
e.g. she looks annoyed (looks = subject compliment, it modifies its subject)
They were discouraging (discouraging = subject compliment, compliments the subject)
They call him smart. (him = object , thus smart = object compliment)
○ Post positive = rare.
Comes after someone...somebody. etc
- John is the president (is -> president = NP, subject compliment (president refers to John))
- We call her a genius (her = obj, genius = object compliment)
Shape = A variety of affixes / endings
Some end in 'y'
Suffixes that change nouns -> adj
- -ful, -ish, -al
Suffixes that change verbs -> adj
Prefixes that attach to adj, make new adj
un-, dis-, in-
○ Un + happy + ness
○ Affixes and roots ^
Happy = root
○ Un = prefix
○ Ness = suffix
○ Act - ive + -ity
Lectures Page 1 ○ Act - ive + -ity
- Shape = form
Comparative & Superlative: -er/-est or more/ most
GRADABILITY = Many adjectives are gradable;
they can occur in diff degrees
- Comparative / superlative forms: Happier, happiest
Can be graded using degree modifiers Somewhat happy, happy enough; very happy, too happy etc..
DEPENDENTS = Adjectives normally modified by adverbs:
- Remarkably happy, surprisingly good etc..
○ e.g. happy - happier - happiest
○ Warm - warmer - warmest
○ *dead - deadlier? - dealiest ?
- If adjectives are gradable - you can make the comparative and the superlative forms
One-syllable More than one syllable
Comparative -er More + _______
Superlative The + -est The most _______
(but if more than 1 syllable, and ends in -y … use "the + est"
e.g. happy -> the happiest)
Adjective Phrase AdjP = Contains adj and optional intensifiers
e.g. Extremely dry
○ she seemed really happy. (really = intensifying the adjective happy) -> adverb / degree word = intensifier
○ We are exhausted.
○ It was so funny. (so = intensifier, shows the degree of the adjective)
- Underlined = head of the AdjP
Attributive and Predicate Adjectives
Attributive adjectives In the NP
before the noun
e.g. A very excited puppy
- Predicate adjectives In the VP
the AP is subject / object complement
e.g. Shelley seems very tired. We are most impressed. He found the test quite difficult.
Not all adjectives can be both: e/g.
Attributive and Predicative sole, afraid, mere
- Attributive adj are always inside NP ; come before nouns, modify the noun
- Predicate adj are in the VP
- Not all adjectives can be both attributive and predicative
- e.g. the sole reason
- He was afraid
- He was a mere child
Adjectives vs Adverbs
Modify verbs Where, when how
e.g. Yesterday we ran the race quickly.
Intensifiers For adj/adv
e.g. the very hungry dog
Sentence adverbs Speaker's commentary
modifies whole sentence
Unfortunately, he didn't complete high school.
Obviously, the car needs washing.
Hopefully, it won't rain tomorrow.
Lectures Page 2 Hopefully, it won't rain tomorrow.
- It was a fast car. (adjective modify nouns e.g. fast -> car)
- He drives fast. (adverb modify verbs e.g. drive -> fast) answer, where, when and how
- Intensifiers = before adjectives
- e.g. the very hungry dog - hungry = adj, very hungry = adjP
- Ate quiet quickly -> quickly = adv
○ He drives really fast -> really = intensifier
- Sentence adverbs:
○ e.g. Honestly, this is a really good class.
○ "honestly" = refers to the whole sentences
○ e.g. Fortunately, I passed the exam
- Honestly, in fact, surprisingly, seriously, fortunately, unfortunately, to tell you the truth…
Side note - Present participle
- e.g. the movie was boring
- We were bored. (express feeling)
Shape/ form - -ly changes adj to adverbs
but what about ... Lovely? Kindly? Friendly?
- Flat Adverbs Same form as adjectives:
slow, fast, hard, loud
Comparative & superlative Usually use more, most
- Flat adverbs Use -er , -est
e.g. we can run faster.
○ e.g. -ly
○ Quickly, surprisingly, kindly
○ *friendly, *lovely = adjective - thus, not all words are adverbs
- Flat adverbs - some adverbs and adj have same forms
○ e.g. fast car vs drives fast
○ You cant tell if they are adj or adv, until you see the structure (syntax)
Adverb phrase AdvP Contains adverb + optional intensifier
e.g. Rather lazily
AdvP in VP e.g.
the rat east very quickly
VP -> V AdvP
Sentence adverbs modify the whole sentence @ beginning AdvP NP VP
- Inside verb phrase
- E.g. the rats eats very quickly
- Sentence adverbs come at the beginning (e.g. honestly)
Adjectives vs Adverbs
- Adjectives can modify nouns & act as predicative complements
- Adverbs, conversely, modify verbs, adj, and other adverbs
- Irregular adjectives
○ e.g. good - better - best
○ e.g. bad - worse - worst
○ e.g. little - less - the least
Lectures Page 3 - In situations like these: we still distinguish between adjectives & adverbs based on their position in the structure.
...only adjectives modify nouns!
Adjectives act as predicative complements.
- Prototypical adjectives are gradable; they can be instantiated in varying degrees:
- Some are non gradable and are interpreted more categorically
Gradibility applies to uses
- Adjectives often have both gradable and non-gradable USES:
Lectures Page 4 - Adjectives often have both gradable and non-gradable USES:
○ Notice: non-gradable uses don't readily allow degree modifiers like "very"
e.g. *the door was very open
Gradability in other categories (cont.)
Nouns & verbs also gradable: Much success
- major problem
they enjoy it very much
they enjoy it very little
- Nouns & verbs can not use same degree modifiers (e.g. VERY and TOO) to express gradation as adjective and adverbs do
○ *Very Success (N)