Lec 6: Clause Types
Clause Types (ch.10)
- Simplest type of clause:canonical clauses
Declarative = Canonical (give info)
e.g. You are happy.
Interoggative Questions (request info)
e.g. Are you happy?
- e.g. How happy are you?
Exclamative Express judgement / feeling w/ emphasis
e.g. How happy you are!
e.g. Be happy!
Discourse Function of Clauses
- Discourse Function of Clauses = how are they distinguished?
○ Declarative = give info
○ Interrogative = request info
○ Imperative = give commands
○ Exclamative = express judgement, feeling with emphasis
Declarative / Indicative Clauses
- The canonical clauses = declaratives
- Basic declaratives have structures: SUBJECT + PREDICATE
○ e.g. the children bought a pet.
- Declaratives are default clause types
○ Other types can be described by how they are different from declaratives
- Typically - declaratives are used to make statements or report facts
Interrogatives Ask questions
Exclamative Express feelings
- Always a subject and a predicate
Closed Interrogative Clauses
○ Closed Interrogative clauses = questions w/ limited set of answers: (YES- NO questions)
□ e.g. Did they leave? (answer = yes / no)
□ e.g. Did she eat an apple or a banana? (answer = apple or banana)
- Structurally, closed interrogative clauses are diff from basic declaratives in the subject and an aux have beenrted (switched
○ He can eat (declarative) -> Can he eat? (CLOSED INTERR)
- IF no aux is available - "-insertion" is used in order to allownversion
- Speakers supplies all info; response is either 'YES' or "NO"
○ CLOSE interrogative clauses (yes no questions)
Inversion (aux in the sentence = either main verb or helping verb)
□ (e.g. He is happy - -> Is he happy?)
□ The machine can type. --> Can the machine type?
□ She has gone to school - -> Has she gone to school?
Do - insertion (no aux)
□ She works hard. --> Does she work hard?
□ He booked the flight --> Did he book the flight?
The answer to these questions are always YES / NO (that's why it is closed interrogative
They have seen that movie twice. -> Have they seen that movie twice?
He will call me at 10 -> Will he call me at 10?
Lectures Page 1 He will call me at 10 -> Will he call me at 10?
They want ice cream -> DO they want ice cream?
She attended the lecture -> DID she attend the lecture?
Simon likes the Simpsons -> DOES Simon like the Simpsons?
Open Interrogative cluases
- Open interrogative clauses have (virtually) unlimited set of answers - (stions)
e.g. what did you eat?
e.g. who have you seen?
e.g. when should I arrive?
○ Open interrogative differ from declaratives b/c they contain a FRONTEDH-word (Who, whom, whose, what, where, when,
When the wh-word is not the subject, open interrogatives also shownversion (like closed interrogatives)
□ e.g. he has eaten an apple --> WHAT has he eaten?
○ WH-questions = used when seeking specific information
○ Wh-words: NP who, whom, whose, which, what
AdvP where, when, why, how
- How are these WH-questions formed? What is the WH-word's grammatical role?
e.g. Jamie is coming to the party -> WHO is coming to the party?
e.g. The letter fell behind the counter. -> WHAT fell behind the counter?
e.g. Tom's viola was left on the bus -> WHOSE viola was left on the bus?
e.g. The red bin contains shoes. -> WHICH bin contains shoes?
e.g. Talisa was wearing a dress -> WHAT was Talisa wearing?
e.g. Robin has torn the pillow -> WHAT has Robin torn?
e.g. Jack will meet Belinda -> Who(m) will Jack meet?
He likes vinegar on his chips -> WHAT does he like on his chips?
e.g. Ellen was playing badly. -> HOW was Ellen playing?
e..g They will arrive tomorrow -> WHEN will they arrive?