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LIN204 Lec 6 Clause Types.pdf

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Safieh Moghaddam

Lec 6: Clause Types July-24-13 5:00 PM Clause Types (ch.10) - Declaratives - Interrogatives - Exclamatives - Imperatives Clause Types - Simplest type of clause:canonical clauses Other types: Declarative = Canonical (give info) e.g. You are happy. Interoggative Questions (request info) e.g. Are you happy? - e.g. How happy are you? Exclamative Express judgement / feeling w/ emphasis e.g. How happy you are! Imperative Command e.g. Be happy! Discourse Function of Clauses - Discourse Function of Clauses = how are they distinguished? ○ Declarative = give info ○ Interrogative = request info ○ Imperative = give commands ○ Exclamative = express judgement, feeling with emphasis Declarative / Indicative Clauses - The canonical clauses = declaratives - Basic declaratives have structures: SUBJECT + PREDICATE ○ e.g. the children bought a pet. - Declaratives are default clause types ○ Other types can be described by how they are different from declaratives - Typically - declaratives are used to make statements or report facts Sentences (clause) Statements Canonical informative - Interrogatives Ask questions Exclamative Express feelings make judgements - Always a subject and a predicate Closed Interrogative Clauses ○ Closed Interrogative clauses = questions w/ limited set of answers: (YES- NO questions) □ e.g. Did they leave? (answer = yes / no) □ e.g. Did she eat an apple or a banana? (answer = apple or banana) - Structurally, closed interrogative clauses are diff from basic declaratives in the subject and an aux have beenrted (switched around) ○ He can eat (declarative) -> Can he eat? (CLOSED INTERR) - IF no aux is available - "-insertion" is used in order to allownversion - Speakers supplies all info; response is either 'YES' or "NO" - Interrogatives ○ CLOSE interrogative clauses (yes no questions)  Inversion (aux in the sentence = either main verb or helping verb) □ (e.g. He is happy - -> Is he happy?) □ The machine can type. --> Can the machine type? □ She has gone to school - -> Has she gone to school?  Do - insertion (no aux) □ She works hard. --> Does she work hard? □ He booked the flight --> Did he book the flight?  The answer to these questions are always YES / NO (that's why it is closed interrogative ○ Examples:  They have seen that movie twice. -> Have they seen that movie twice?  He will call me at 10 -> Will he call me at 10? Lectures Page 1  He will call me at 10 -> Will he call me at 10?  They want ice cream -> DO they want ice cream?  She attended the lecture -> DID she attend the lecture?  Simon likes the Simpsons -> DOES Simon like the Simpsons? Open Interrogative cluases - Open interrogative clauses have (virtually) unlimited set of answers - (stions)  e.g. what did you eat?  e.g. who have you seen?  e.g. when should I arrive? ○ Open interrogative differ from declaratives b/c they contain a FRONTEDH-word (Who, whom, whose, what, where, when, why, how)  When the wh-word is not the subject, open interrogatives also shownversion (like closed interrogatives) □ e.g. he has eaten an apple --> WHAT has he eaten? ○ WH-questions = used when seeking specific information ○ Wh-words: NP who, whom, whose, which, what AdvP where, when, why, how - How are these WH-questions formed? What is the WH-word's grammatical role?  e.g. Jamie is coming to the party -> WHO is coming to the party?  e.g. The letter fell behind the counter. -> WHAT fell behind the counter?  e.g. Tom's viola was left on the bus -> WHOSE viola was left on the bus?  e.g. The red bin contains shoes. -> WHICH bin contains shoes?  e.g. Talisa was wearing a dress -> WHAT was Talisa wearing?  e.g. Robin has torn the pillow -> WHAT has Robin torn?  e.g. Jack will meet Belinda -> Who(m) will Jack meet?  He likes vinegar on his chips -> WHAT does he like on his chips?  e.g. Ellen was playing badly. -> HOW was Ellen playing?  e..g They will arrive tomorrow -> WHEN will they arrive?  e.g. H
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