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Lecture

LIN204 Lec 7 Negation.pdf

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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN204H1
Professor
Safieh Moghaddam

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Lec 7: Negation July-24-13 8:23 PM Outline: - Negation (ch8) ○ Meaning of negation ○ Polarity ○ Negative clauses ○ Sub-clausal negation ○ Scope - Clausa Types (ch10) Declaratives ○ ○ Interrogatives ○ Exclamatives ○ Imperatives ○ Speech acts Negation - Negation = in English is marked by words such as ○ NOT, NEVER, NO, ...etc ○ Affixes = prefixes and suffixes that attach to words, such as  n't, un- , non- ...etc e.g. He has not arrived. They never eat out. No employees sent in their forms. ○ She didn't receive the letter. You were unhappy with the wallpaper. She's studying non-conventional medicine. - Use pre/suffix - Sometimes use a word to show negation - e.g. No one likes housework ○ No one = negative NP, shows negation - e.g. I'm not happy ○ Not - e.g. he didn't do the work. ○ Didn't - e.g. she's un-happy ○ Un- Meaning of Negation - In terms of meaning - negation indicates that some part of the sentence is NOT TRUE. For example: the sentence "Bill broke the vase" = NOT TRUE Why? Because … It was someone else who broke the vase  Bill handled the vase but it was not broken. Bill broke something other than the vase (e.g. a dish)  Any of these situations would be enough for us to say that "he didn't break the vase". ○ Notice that negation does not indicate that the opposite is true. Eg. "The red team didn't beat the blue team" does NOT mean the blue team won  -since it could have been a tie or the competition could've been cancelled altogether. - e.g. Bill didn't break the vase. ○ Meaning 1 = someone else broke it ○ Meaning 2 = he didn’t break it, he damaged it ○ Meaning 3 = … - Negation does not always mean the opposite ○ e.g. The red team didn't beat the blue team.  Does not mean blue team won  Maybe it was a tie  Or cancelled Polarity ○ We call the positive/negative contrast POLARITY Lectures Page 1 ○ We call the positive/negative contrast POLARITY  Clauses can have positive polarity or negative polarity - - POSITIVE POLARITY = DEFAULT  Clauses with positive polarity are simpler (contain fewer items)  Clauses with negative polarity usually need extra material - Positive - negative contrasts - e.g. It is raining = clause with POSITIVE POLARITY - e.g. It is not raining = NEGATIVE POLARITY - Positive polarity ○ Default clause ○ Always go from positive to negative - Always have declarative sentences as default - make questions Negative Clauses - Having a negative element (e.g. not) inside a cluase doesn't always give the clause negative polarity ○ There are 3 tests for polarity  TEST 1 "not even"  TEST 2 "so", "neither" and "nor"  TEST 3 reversed polarity tags - Positive clauses and negative clauses behave diff with respect to these 3 tests THREE TESTS to show that a clause is a Negative - See slide TEST 1: "not even" ○ While negative clauses can be followed by constituents intro by "not even", this is not possible with positive clauses: - If you can use "not even" in a clause = negative - e.g. No one passed the test, not even the smartest student. - e.g. There are no puppy haters, not even in America. TEST 2: "So", "neither", "Nor" ○ TWO Positive clauses can be connected with the connective "SO" ○ TWO negative clauses can be connected with connectives "NEITHER" or "NOR" - Notice that if we try to connect 2 positive clauses w/ NEITHER or NOR, we get an ungrammatical sentence: Lectur
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