Class Notes (839,572)
Canada (511,407)
Linguistics (400)
LIN204H1 (55)

LIN204 Lec 7 Negation.pdf

5 Pages

Course Code
Safieh Moghaddam

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Lec 7: Negation July-24-13 8:23 PM Outline: - Negation (ch8) ○ Meaning of negation ○ Polarity ○ Negative clauses ○ Sub-clausal negation ○ Scope - Clausa Types (ch10) Declaratives ○ ○ Interrogatives ○ Exclamatives ○ Imperatives ○ Speech acts Negation - Negation = in English is marked by words such as ○ NOT, NEVER, NO, ...etc ○ Affixes = prefixes and suffixes that attach to words, such as  n't, un- , non- ...etc e.g. He has not arrived. They never eat out. No employees sent in their forms. ○ She didn't receive the letter. You were unhappy with the wallpaper. She's studying non-conventional medicine. - Use pre/suffix - Sometimes use a word to show negation - e.g. No one likes housework ○ No one = negative NP, shows negation - e.g. I'm not happy ○ Not - e.g. he didn't do the work. ○ Didn't - e.g. she's un-happy ○ Un- Meaning of Negation - In terms of meaning - negation indicates that some part of the sentence is NOT TRUE. For example: the sentence "Bill broke the vase" = NOT TRUE Why? Because … It was someone else who broke the vase  Bill handled the vase but it was not broken. Bill broke something other than the vase (e.g. a dish)  Any of these situations would be enough for us to say that "he didn't break the vase". ○ Notice that negation does not indicate that the opposite is true. Eg. "The red team didn't beat the blue team" does NOT mean the blue team won  -since it could have been a tie or the competition could've been cancelled altogether. - e.g. Bill didn't break the vase. ○ Meaning 1 = someone else broke it ○ Meaning 2 = he didn’t break it, he damaged it ○ Meaning 3 = … - Negation does not always mean the opposite ○ e.g. The red team didn't beat the blue team.  Does not mean blue team won  Maybe it was a tie  Or cancelled Polarity ○ We call the positive/negative contrast POLARITY Lectures Page 1 ○ We call the positive/negative contrast POLARITY  Clauses can have positive polarity or negative polarity - - POSITIVE POLARITY = DEFAULT  Clauses with positive polarity are simpler (contain fewer items)  Clauses with negative polarity usually need extra material - Positive - negative contrasts - e.g. It is raining = clause with POSITIVE POLARITY - e.g. It is not raining = NEGATIVE POLARITY - Positive polarity ○ Default clause ○ Always go from positive to negative - Always have declarative sentences as default - make questions Negative Clauses - Having a negative element (e.g. not) inside a cluase doesn't always give the clause negative polarity ○ There are 3 tests for polarity  TEST 1 "not even"  TEST 2 "so", "neither" and "nor"  TEST 3 reversed polarity tags - Positive clauses and negative clauses behave diff with respect to these 3 tests THREE TESTS to show that a clause is a Negative - See slide TEST 1: "not even" ○ While negative clauses can be followed by constituents intro by "not even", this is not possible with positive clauses: - If you can use "not even" in a clause = negative - e.g. No one passed the test, not even the smartest student. - e.g. There are no puppy haters, not even in America. TEST 2: "So", "neither", "Nor" ○ TWO Positive clauses can be connected with the connective "SO" ○ TWO negative clauses can be connected with connectives "NEITHER" or "NOR" - Notice that if we try to connect 2 positive clauses w/ NEITHER or NOR, we get an ungrammatical sentence: Lectur
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.