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Lecture 9

LIN228H1 Lecture 9: lin228_handout9

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LIN228 2012 -- Week 7 Kochetov-1 Vowels of the World’s Languages I. Cardinal vowels Main articulatory properties distinguishing vowels: height and backness (place). Cardinal vowels: ɨ ʉ i, y ɯ, u e, ø ɘ, ɵ ɤ , o ə ɛ, œ ɜ, ɞ ʌ, ɔ a, ɶ ɑ, ɒ Cardinal vowels are produced at the extreme periphery of the vowel space and are equidistant from one another. The cardinal vowel system was designed to provide reference points in the description of vowels. Vowels in particular languages can be described in reference to the cardinal vowels. The vowels at the extreme possible points of articulation are: primary secondary [i] [y] high, front [a] [ɶ] low, front [u] [ɯ] high, back [ɑ] [ɒ] low, back In addition to the vowels produced at the four extreme corners of the vowel space, the vowel quadrilateral is further divided with a vertical line down the centre and two horizontal lines equidistant front one another. Each of the horizontal lines have cardinal vowels at the front and back extremes. The vowel schwa is in the very centre of the vowel space. The front and back sets of cardinal vowels are equidistant from one another. 1 LIN228 2012 -- Week 7 Kochetov-2 Average frequencies of F1 and F2 for the cardinal vowels (in Hz; frequencies from table 9.1 of the text): Primary Secondary F1F2 F1F2 i 240 2400 y 235 2100 e 3902300 ø 370 1900 ɛ 610 1900 œ 585 1710 a 8501610 820 1530 ɶ ɑ 750 940 ɒ 700 760 ɔ 500 700 ʌ 600 1170 o 360640 ɤ 460 1310 u 250595 ɯ 300 1390 Adding lip rounding to front vowels ______________ both formants, but particularly _______. Because a high _________ is characteristic of front vowels in general, the effect of rounding gives the impression that a rounded front [y] is somewhere between [i] and [u]. Primary vowels are more common than secondary vowels. Lip rounding for back vowels tends to be made by protruding the lips whereas lip rounding on front vowels tends to be made by narrowing the lips without pushing them forward. Some vowel inventories: Spanish: Japanese: Danish: i• u• i• ɯ • i• y• u• e• ø • o• e • o• e• o• ɛ • œ • ɔ • a• a • a• ɑ • Vowel systems of particular languages are generally transcribed by using the cardinal vowel symbol that is closest to each vowel in a language. However, language-specific transcription traditions also develop and differ from the cardinal vowel usage. In English, for example, the low front vowel is transcribed with [æ] and not with the low, front cardinal vowel symbol [a]. 2 LIN228 2012 -- Week 7 Kochetov-3 II. Additional Vowel Symbols Additional symbols are needed for some languages. If a language has five, unrounded front vowels there will not be enough cardinal vowel symbols to represent every vowel in the language. The following additional symbols are needed for languages with larger vowel inventories: [ɪ] – between [i] and [e] [ʏ] – between [y] and [ø] [ʊ] – between [u] and [o] [æ] – between [ɛ] and [a] [ɐ] – higher low central unrounded If additional precision is needed, the following diacritics can be used to show that a vowel is slightly more front, more back, higher or lower than the cardinal symbol being used:
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