Class Notes (837,823)
Canada (510,501)
Linguistics (400)
LIN228H1 (26)
A.Kochetov (15)
Lecture

lin228_handout2.pdf
Premium

6 Pages
140 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Linguistics
Course
LIN228H1
Professor
A.Kochetov
Semester
Fall

Description
LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 2 Kochetov-1 English Consonants English consonant phonemes: An overview Table 1. English consonant phonemes place manner bi labio dental alveolar retro post- palatal velar glottal labial dental flex alveolar stops vls. /p/ /t/ /k/ vcd /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ tap vcd fricatives vls /f/ /θ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /h/ vcd /v/ /ð/ /z/ /ʒ/ affricates vls /ʧ/ vcd /ʤ/ nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ liquids /l/ /ɹ/ glides /w/* /j/ /w/* */w/ is labial-velar (double articulation) Vls. = voiceless, vd. = voiced. Phonemes are sounds that are contrastive in a given language, can create a difference in meaning. • The following words illustrate the contrastive consonants of English: pie tie/tight kite bye die guy fie thigh sigh shy high vie thy/then Zen/ruse rouge my nigh/win wing lie rye wet yet Consonants are characterized according to voicing, place, and manner. Some additional terms (manner): • Obstruents: consonants which involve a high degree of constriction; this includes stops, fricatives, and affricates • Sonorants: include nasals and approximants • Approximants: include liquids and glides • Sibilants: obstruents that produce a hissing sound ([s], [z], [ʃ], [ʒ], [ʧ], [ʤ]) • Laterals: sounds produced with air moving around the sides of the tongue ([l] and [ɫ]) LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 2 Kochetov-2 • Rhotics: r-like sounds (/ɹ/ in English) • Liquids: cover term for both laterals and rhotics. Some additional terms (place): • Labial: bilabial and labiodental consonants • Coronal: dental, alveolar, post-alveolar, retroflex consonants • Dorsal: palatal and velar consonants. Basic naming of consonants: voicing, place, manner, e.g. • voiceless alveolar fricative _____ • (voiced) alveolar lateral approximant _____ • (voiced) bilabial nasal (stop) _____ Line drawings allow one to visualize activities in the vocal tract (see pp. 25-27, 35). • Oral supra-laryngeal channels: no constriction (wide), an approximant-like constriction p-a (slightly narrowed), a fricative-like constriction (narrow), complete closure (single line) • Velic supra-laryngeal channel: dorsal no constriction (wide– nasal sounds), complete closure (oral sounds) • Laryngeal (glottal) channel: voiced (jagged line), voiceless (straight line) Denoting specific articulations: • dent = dental • p-a = post-alveolar • lat = lateral • ret = retroflex dorsal Phonotactics There are restrictions on where some consonants can occur. For example, • [ŋ] can only occur at the end of a syllable or before a velar as in fling [flɪŋ] or sink [sɪŋk]; • [h] occurs only at the beginning of a syllable as in ham [hæm]. LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 2 Kochetov-3 Rules that determine where sounds can occur and how sounds can be combined are called phonotactics. Phonemes vs. allophones Two sounds are contrastive if they are able to create a difference in meaning in a given language. • For example, in English [b] and [p] are contrastive. There are many examples illustrating this: pit vs. bit, pat vs. bat, pump vs. bump, etc. Sounds that are contrastive are called phonemes (of a given language). Not all sounds that occur in a language are able to create a difference in meaning. • The initial consonant in the word pit is released with a puff of air that is not present in the second segment of spit. The sound at the beginning of pit is an aspirated /p/. The sound following the /s/ of spit is unaspirated. Aspiration is transcribed with a superscript h:
More Less

Related notes for LIN228H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit