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LIN228H1 (26)
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LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 2 Kochetov-1 English Consonants English consonant phonemes: An overview Table 1. English consonant phonemes place manner bi labio dental alveolar retro post- palatal velar glottal labial dental flex alveolar stops vls. /p/ /t/ /k/ vcd /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ tap vcd fricatives vls /f/ /θ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /h/ vcd /v/ /ð/ /z/ /ʒ/ affricates vls /ʧ/ vcd /ʤ/ nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ liquids /l/ /ɹ/ glides /w/* /j/ /w/* */w/ is labial-velar (double articulation) Vls. = voiceless, vd. = voiced. Phonemes are sounds that are contrastive in a given language, can create a difference in meaning. • The following words illustrate the contrastive consonants of English: pie tie/tight kite bye die guy fie thigh sigh shy high vie thy/then Zen/ruse rouge my nigh/win wing lie rye wet yet Consonants are characterized according to voicing, place, and manner. Some additional terms (manner): • Obstruents: consonants which involve a high degree of constriction; this includes stops, fricatives, and affricates • Sonorants: include nasals and approximants • Approximants: include liquids and glides • Sibilants: obstruents that produce a hissing sound ([s], [z], [ʃ], [ʒ], [ʧ], [ʤ]) • Laterals: sounds produced with air moving around the sides of the tongue ([l] and [ɫ]) LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 2 Kochetov-2 • Rhotics: r-like sounds (/ɹ/ in English) • Liquids: cover term for both laterals and rhotics. Some additional terms (place): • Labial: bilabial and labiodental consonants • Coronal: dental, alveolar, post-alveolar, retroflex consonants • Dorsal: palatal and velar consonants. Basic naming of consonants: voicing, place, manner, e.g. • voiceless alveolar fricative _____ • (voiced) alveolar lateral approximant _____ • (voiced) bilabial nasal (stop) _____ Line drawings allow one to visualize activities in the vocal tract (see pp. 25-27, 35). • Oral supra-laryngeal channels: no constriction (wide), an approximant-like constriction p-a (slightly narrowed), a fricative-like constriction (narrow), complete closure (single line) • Velic supra-laryngeal channel: dorsal no constriction (wide– nasal sounds), complete closure (oral sounds) • Laryngeal (glottal) channel: voiced (jagged line), voiceless (straight line) Denoting specific articulations: • dent = dental • p-a = post-alveolar • lat = lateral • ret = retroflex dorsal Phonotactics There are restrictions on where some consonants can occur. For example, • [ŋ] can only occur at the end of a syllable or before a velar as in fling [flɪŋ] or sink [sɪŋk]; • [h] occurs only at the beginning of a syllable as in ham [hæm]. LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 2 Kochetov-3 Rules that determine where sounds can occur and how sounds can be combined are called phonotactics. Phonemes vs. allophones Two sounds are contrastive if they are able to create a difference in meaning in a given language. • For example, in English [b] and [p] are contrastive. There are many examples illustrating this: pit vs. bit, pat vs. bat, pump vs. bump, etc. Sounds that are contrastive are called phonemes (of a given language). Not all sounds that occur in a language are able to create a difference in meaning. • The initial consonant in the word pit is released with a puff of air that is not present in the second segment of spit. The sound at the beginning of pit is an aspirated /p/. The sound following the /s/ of spit is unaspirated. Aspiration is transcribed with a superscript h:
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