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LIN229H1 (29)

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University of Toronto St. George
Rohany- Rahbar

LECTURE 02: Allophonic relations chapter 3 in the book What govern pronunciation of words Contrastive aspects cannot predict by rules Allophonic changes governed by rules, therefore predictable Phonetics is what you hear; underlying is phonological, in the mind, cannot be heard therefore must look at data and infer the underlying representation Physically very different between t and d T and d are contrastive because they are two different phonemes Have and had, said and set minimal pairs different only in t and d Therefore in English, t and d are different phonemes T versus aspirated t cannot find minimal pairs in English distinguishable only by the difference in aspiration on t Thus occur in different contexts Predictability = test asking native speaker which allophone occurs can answer because the occurance of one allophone is predictable, and thus native speaker may identify which allophone should occur Note the brackets - for phonemes, [] for allophones Have to occur in separate contexts Complementary distribution Phoneme occurs in majority of contexts, while allophone occurs in minority of context(s) Complementary distribution see one where the other is never seen Two different realizations of the same individual Given two sounds A and B 1. Look for similar contexts in same context, two separate phonemes Minimal pairs not a requirement of data analysis Venda data two different phonemes because they are occur in the same context Compare baboon and he; tooth and now; at your place and five 2. No minimal pair, then A and B are allophones of the same phoneme Hindi from the brackets, recognize that A and B are underlying; from the next brackets, recognize that A and B are also surface representations; thus A and B are different phonemes
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