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LIN323 Notes - Topic 2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Marshall Chasin

TOPIC 2 – FANT’S MODEL OF THE VOCAL TRACT Model of the vocal tract  Source-Filter-Radiation Model o Source: Vocal chords o Filter: Vocal tract o Radiation: Lips and nostrils  Standing Waves: It occurs when two progressive waves (the incident wave and the reflected wave) of the same frequency and amplitude travel through the same medium in opposite direction. They appear to be still rather than moving, although both waves are moving in opposite directions. Standing waves are the resultant wave (the sum), which is stationary. All tubes (vocal tract or trumpet) can have standing waves. Quarter Wavelength Resonator  Only found in an unconstricted tube that is open at one end and closed at the other  Wavelength: The distance between the same point on two successive cycles of a tone (from the beginning of one wave to the beginning of the next)  Fundamental resonance (formant frequencies) o F = (2k-1)v/4L  v = speed of sound (34,000cm/sec – almost constant)  L = 17cm (length of vocal tract of a male adult)  k = formant o Narrowing or constriction is irrelevant as it only depends on the speed of sound and the length of the tube o E.g. [ɑ], nasals (through the nasal cavity) [m, n, ŋ], straw closed at one end o E.g. tuba (long tube) and piccolo (short tube) therefore low frequency and high frequency o E.g. [] has a lower frequency than [s] due to the lengthened vocal tract by puckering up o F2 is F1*3, and F3 is F1*5, and so on (odd number of the F1)  Helium o Higher formant frequency due to the higher speed (100,000cm/sec)  Different vocal tract lengths o Male: 17.5cm, Female: 14.75cm, Infant: 8.75cm  Volume Velocity (Pressure): the movement caused by a sound wave of a unit volume of a sound-transmitting medium through a unit area per unit of time. The lateral movement of a standing wave at any one location. All wavelength associated standing waves have a volume velocity which changes from location to location. o Analogous to air flow: particle movement o Volume velocity has a maximum at open end (quarter wavelength resonator) o Pressure has a minimum at open end (quarter wavelength resonator)  Sound Pressure: measu2e of force divided by the area to which the force is applied; measured in dyne/cm ; an ear is a pressure receptor; interchangeable with sound intensity Half Wavelength Resonator  Only found in tube when it is either open or closed at both ends 1  Fundamental resonance (formant frequencies) o F = kv/2L o E.g. nasal consonants (through the oral cavity), flute, open straw  Half wavelength anti-resonator o Anti-resonators of oral cavity resonance for nasals: where the loss of energy takes place  [m] = 1000Hz  [n] = 1700Hz  [ŋ] = 3000Hz  Half wavelength anti-resonances o Loss in energy  E.g. nasals, nasalized vowels, bagpipes o Anti-resonances and anti-formants: The presence of anti-formants in the vocal tract transfer function. The opposite of formants, anti-formants arise from division of airflow in the vocal tract during production of nasal gestures and can be created when two tubs are in parallel and of difference acoust
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