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LIN323 Notes - Topic 3.docx

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Marshall Chasin

TOPIC 3 – GLOTTAL SOURCES Glottal Sources  Two physical principles of the movements of the glottis are: 1. Subglottal pressure forces open the closed vocal folds  The air pressure emanating from below the glottis from the lungs  Vocal Folds: A complex of tissues and structures situated in the larynx of a speaker which has a characteristic vibration defined as the fundamental frequency. The frequency of vibration is brought about by the interplay between the sub-glottal pressure from the lungs and the Bernoulli principle. 2. Bernoilli’s Principle: Pressure is inversely related to velocity  The effect dictating that given a constant volume flow of air or fluet at a point of constriction, there will be a decrease in air pressure perpendicular to the flow and an increase in velocity of the flow. Sound pressure is inversely related to the velocity of air passing a point.  I.e. high velocity → low pressure o The glottis is forced open by (1) and “sucked” closed by (2) o The rate at which this occurs is called the fundamental frequency (F0)  High vowels have slightly higher F0 than lower vowels (due to muscular stretching on larynx)  F0: The lowest component frequency of a periodic wave or quantity; multiples of the fundamental frequency represents the harmonic structure of the vocal output. The frequency is related to the vocal fold vibration whereas the amplitude is affected by the characteristics and shape of the vocal tract o E.g. water gushes from the shower and shower curtains are sucked in o E.g. Dyson fans o E.g. trills, flaps, the way your blow a brass instrument  Pitch is the perception of frequency and is equal to the difference between the harmonics. The harmonics are equally spaced, so that the spacing = F0 o F0=125Hz (125→375→500→625→750) o We do not create sound in between harmonics  “True” spectra are a bunch of vertical lines rather than a continuous line o There is no inherent reason why a harmonic should co-incide with a formant frequency other than coincidence  E.g. sopranos can perform “formant tuning” – change vowel to fit the note to maximize intensity o Harmonic Structure: The spectral domain energy distribution caused by the fundamental frequency and its integer multiples, known as harmonics. Acoustic Effects Relating to
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