lecture on Cancer.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
Kenneth Yip

Cancer is a long term process: 1. Induction phase –can last up to 30 years 2. In situ phase 3. Invasion phase 4. Dissemination (metastasis): 1 to 5 years from diagnosis a. Indicative of uncontrollable cancer b. Critical to detect cancer early before metastasis because once that happens, it is very aggressive and difficult to control and the methods/options to intervene become less and less c. Ideally at induction phase but not possible because not certain if cancer will actually develop into aggressive or not Consequences of cancer • Local effects—mass growing of tumour will obstruct blood vessels and ducts and thus destruction of tissue Systemic effects • Ectopic secretion of hormones o Lung cancer: small cell carcinomas produce ACTH o Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion  Results in hyponatremia and water retention  Commonly seen in cancer patients Cachexia • Characteristic wasting often seen in cancer patients o Anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, muscle weakness, anemia and pyrexia (fever, from infection) (don’t feel like eatinglose weight muscle weakness losing muscle o Inadequate food intake o Impaired digestion and absorption o Tumor deprives body of nutrients (tumor absorbs the nutrients) o Increased metabolic rate (tumor growing fast causing metabolic disturbance) Physical symptoms, Changes in biochemical parameters • liver aminotransferases (ALT, AST) • adrenal abnormalities (cortisol) • elevated urate, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium • proteinuria and renal failure (kidney might fail working) Treatment (intervention) Chemotherapy • cytotoxicity (want to kill tumor cells, but other proliferating cells will be killed as well ) • tumor lysis syndrome • hyperuricemia (high in uric acid) • hypomagnesemia (low) Radiation • hypopituitarism • Gonadal failure Role of the laboratory • Detection (screening) o Mammography (breast), radiological procedure o Fecal occult blood-sigmoidoscopy (colon and rectum) o X-ray, cytology of the sputum (lung) o Papanicolaou test (cervix) • Confirmation (biopsy) • Classification staging and grading of the tumour (biopsy) o How advanced it is (localized or invading) and grading its aggressiveness by the mitosis process o Tissue that is suspected is removed for analysis o Can differ btw cancer and normal cell (differentiated or not) o If you see mitosis and rearrangement then cell has gone from stable to uncontrollable • Monitoring • After intervention has occurred Tumour markers • A substance which is released by the tumor or the host in response to a tumor • Their presence or increased expression can be used to determine the presence of a tumor Characteristics of an ideal tumor marker • Easy to measure • Readily available in body fluids • Specific for a certain cancer ( if it is increased, then it would be that kind of cancer like breast cancer) • Sensitive enough to detect small tumours • If present in health, the level should be lower than when present in disease Tumour marker classification Proteins Immunoglobulins, Bence Jones proteins Enzymes Lactate dehydrogenase, Alkaline phosphatase, prostate specific antigen Hormones Human chorionic gonadotropin HCG, ACTH, Catecholamines Oncofetal antigens CEA, AFP Carbohydrates CA 19-9, CA125, C
More Less

Related notes for LMP299Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.