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Lecture 5

LIN200H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Intransitive Verb, Ditransitive Verb, Preposition And Postposition

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Aaron Dinkin

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Lecture 5 February 11, 2016
Generave syntax
Use the rule of grammar to create sentence.
Syntax look for in!nite ways to create sentence.
Same set of words but di$erent order:
The cat chased the rat.
The rat chased the cat.
* Cat the rat the chased.
Syntacc Categories:
Noun: refer to “person, place, or thing” (not a good de!nion)
A noun is de!ned as a noun due to the syntacc behavior
Eg. tennis (acvity people do, not person/place/thing); destrucon (not person/place/thing, the
acon of describing thing)
A noun is a word that appears in the posion of a sentence where you expect to !nd a noun or
that are characteriscs of noun.
Eg. The (noun) is interesng. [duck/pancake/nurse/island/wedding/destrucon/tennis]
A (noun) is interesng.
(Noun) is interesng.
(Noun)s are interesng.
Distribuonal evidence
Eg. The (noun)s are interesng.
Some distribuonal tests may fail, not all work
Eg. * The Aaron is interesng. (wrong sentence even when we expect we should put a noun in
the sentence while Aaron is a noun)
Eg. (Noun) is interesng. [Aaron/rice/furniture/tennis/destrucon/Canada, all of these words
are noun; rice/furniture/tennis/destrucon !t in the frame with and without “the”, but
Aaron/Canada only !t in the frame without “the”]
Proper nouns
The name of a speci!c individual person or place
Eg. Aaron, Canada, Europe, Venus, Serena
Proper nouns don’t occur with “the” or “a”, or with plural
Count nouns
Nouns that refer to thing that we think of of discrete items or individual things that you can
They do occur some of the context with “the” or “a”, or with plural, not all of them
Eg. dog, shoe, chair, idea, potato
Mass nouns
They do occur with “the”, they don’t occur with “a” or plural
Eg. milk, sand, rice, water, furniture, knowledge
Words that can occur in the context:
The/a/my/your/every/some duck is interesng.
Syntacc framework: a set of words [the/a/my/your/every/some]
Determine is typically occur before noun, or noun occurs a<er the determiner
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