Lecture 3 - Clauses

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28 Jun 2011
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o2i. substitution test to determine whether pret or p participle use
verb fly so flew fits therefore preterite
oii. Use verb take took therefore preterite form
oiii. Take taken therefore p. participle form
oiv. Use verb fly flown therefore p. participle form
ov. use sing sang therefore preterite form
o5i. non-finite: cannot stand on its own as a clause, missing subject
better solution: p. participle form found in non-finite clauses 
arrested is a p. participle
oii. Finite can test this: if you switch to 3rd person sing
oiii. Finite there is a subject (they)
oiv. Non-finite gerund-participle heading clause; also no subject there
o7i. must auxiliary: we can have bare infinitval after it (therefore
modal); not
oii. Is auxiliary: isnt, also dont need to add other aux
o11i. imperfective I think can hold over to tomorrow
o20ii. Epistemic what they knew, evidence they have
oiii. Epistemic (based on schedule they gave me, how long) or Deontic
(obligation or value judgment, should be)
ox. Deontic asking for permission, obligation
June 8, 2011
Clause Structure
osimplest type of clause
ohas subj + pred in that order
ochased the car: verb phrase
opredicator: verb-> certain participants to this action described by the
verb
ocomplements dog, car
odog and car are both NPs but serve diff fcns
oConstituents
oClauses, phrases, ind words
oEssentially units
oWhen we replace constituent, have to replace everything i.e.
pronoun replacing entire NP
oTests for Constituents
oTtests not always perfect, good to use together
oSubstitution
oMvmt
oCoordination: add something of similar category
oSubstitution test
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