LIN204H1 Lecture Notes - Tag Question, Adverb

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29 Mar 2012
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Department
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LIN 204H1S ENGLISHGRAMMAR
March 14, 2012: Clause Type: Affirmative vs. Negation
A. Verb Negation (f) I+Ji
~JOP~
</-ltfLpht
a4X.
1.
What are the rules for negating verbs?
r-:J
7
jJ' .
jf
,lrh>erhOv" /
I can come. I will be eating.
l?
-r
/7/)
~~1/
ty&D I? .
The apples have been picked. She is cooking.
J..Vt
LP;~~~I f.2-"VV
/>f'
"L
I washed the clothes. I do the dishes every night.
SvtAf.. -
51112
~)1t-
Of11/
He is a good cook. She has a pen.
0 _
m-Or~
'I
/kIe~
~ .- slt.P-
c.t.cu;
I/l<f-
jt.Pi
VR
2. Contractions: How are contractions formed in the f?llowillg SEtllte,nCes?
I,
a
'rf I/I,V~, ,
'I
The letter has not arrived.
T~ 0.tteA~
.~n+
Ot.r-n~..
9 .. '
(7;1-,> .
The secretary could notreach the client.
Th9...
c;£.c/€.;>!TftY:!- &()~n-l'
n2,p"c;.A
#w..,
!!tR-4f
The door must not be opened.
1M
/A.A·ffJ::f-
Nancy is not coming to the party.
/-:;,,/1
What is irregular about the contraction in the following sentence?
The classwill not meet this afternoon.
GN/(/{~1-
X / -'/
t-vClYl
'VL
c
.'. '
I
~w ,e contractions formed in the following sentences:
91l9'U
~+-7
S
h,p!
~1
,f-
e---
VI
cif--
Z
Ph
~!;;1t, v£'1.
I am not allowed to smoke. We are not allowed to smoke.
/t-z./,Co:::t.~CTVf
,You are not allowed to smoke. They are not allpwed to smoke.
L.4iPz;A(
(;:"1/':1
He is not allowed to smoke.
I'f.e{5'
Iwi
cdlt:y/jd/!-I.eli.t:l<f·c;;dt~
e::?"Lf
t
/>;",
I have not read the paper. She has not rectd the paper.
v
3. N~ative yes-no questions with and without contractions - what are the rules?
1-,~
(rZJt'~, ,
"',lof,'
,> \.
I
Craigis coming for dinner. Joan has finished her paper .
.-
,?
Peter paid the bill. Lina's waiting outside.
f. 'j.
""'j,l
0
t. ~ \
.JJ;f1',
J,
4. How do you make negative commands?
"'"j"') •• "
I
, Shut the door! Stop running!
"von--1- - - ,
5. How were verbs negated in Shakespeare's time? (Julius Caesar)
I know not what you mean by that.
Knew you not Pompey?
Pearhim not, Caesar.
B. Negation of Indefinite Pronouns, Adverbs
Indefinite pronouns (p.98):
anything/one/body, something/one/body
Indefinite adverbs:
anywhere/time, somewhere/time, ever
~
M, ake "t,he following statements negative: . "
/:n,'
,4'-U"J
S
/c ~
not-·/rL¥n ...._
Z
f"
'h;'J/",,'J--y,
I need something: She went somewhere.
{J2.
I-' , • , -'.
J
T~ {l'i~1r'J-
;fJ!
They went sometime. He saw someone.
1-/-42-
S.Ci
PI/'
Ai iJ\;i ;. el
Lib
e.
1'1 (.)
u-~.
~fh,,"1r.t'h~"
~can use a negative indefinite
nothing, nowhere, never, no one
o
or negate the verb and use indefinite with
any-
affirmative negative indefinite
He saw
something.
He saw
nothing.
She met
someone.
She met
no one.
Make the above statements into yes-no questions.
negated verb
He
didn't
see
anything.
She
didn't
meet
anyone.
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