LIN228H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Tongue, Spectrogram, Labiodental Nasal

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26 Mar 2017
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November 2nd, 2016
LIN228 LECTURE 7
Review from the test: when reading a spectrogram…
oStart with fricatives
See if words start with /s/ (higher frequency intensity!)
Look for words beginning with lower intensity consonants  /f/, /h/ (to distinguish, /h/ will have vowel-like
formants!)
o/l/ vs. /n/  /l/ will have a clearer formant pattern compared to /n/
oVoiced stops  sometimes a voice bar can be seen at the beginning and ends of words (sometimes not since
they’re partially voiceless)
Consonants of the world…
oBilabial fricatives  phi and beta
Similar to /f/ and /v/, but bilabial (like making /b/ and /p/ without closing the lips)
oLinguolabial  tongue articulates against the upper lip
oLabiodental  nasal /m/ produced with the lower teeth and upper lip (such as the /m/ made in ‘emphatic’)
oApicodental  tongue tip and teeth
oLaminodental  tongue blade and teeth
oApicoalveolar  tongue tip and alveolar ridge
oAlveopalatal  tongue blade and alveolar ridge
oRetroflex  tip and back of alveolar ridge  stops can be made retroflex by pushing the tongue tip to the back of
the alveolar ridge
oLamino-post alveolar  tongue blade and post-alveolar ridge
oPalatal  front of the tongue with the palate
oDorsovelar  back of the tongue against the velum
oDorso-uvular  back of the tongue against the uvula
oRadico-pharyngeal  root of the tongue articulates against the pharyngeal wall
oGlottal  using glottis; tongue in neutral position  can be voiced
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