LIN228H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Joule, Coarticulation, Phoneme

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26 Mar 2017
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SEPTEMBER 28T H , 2016
LIN228 LE C T U RE 3: EN G LISH VOWELS
SOME REVIEW ABOUT CONSONANTS
/st m k/ ɑ ə
oLabial line  all open except at /m/
oCoronal line  slightly open for /s/, closed for /t/ and all open for the rest
oDorsal line  everything open except for /k/
oVelic line  everything open except for /m/
oGlottal  straight line for /s t/, squiggly line for next three sounds, and straight line for /k/
Allophonic variation  each phoneme can have two or more variants, i.e. allophones
oExample; the /k/ will be different when we use it for “key” vs. “coo”
oIt is fronted in “key” (shown with a plus sign diacritic)
Not a true velar /k/, but a palate /k/ i.e. it is fronted
oIt is further back in “coo” and also rounded due to the /u/ sound
Allophones are  are not contrastive and do not distinguish meaning
Narrow transcription  some important features…
oAspiration  occurs in voiceless stops at the beginning of words; superscript h diacritic
If there is an /s/ before the voiceless stop, then there is no aspiration
 Specific conditions are required for aspiration to occur
oTapping  /t/ becomes a tap: a short voiced segment
The /t/ is heard in word-initial positions, however the tap is heard when it’s within the word
The same case is true for the /d/ sound; we may realize the /d/ phoneme as a tap
Ex// “tutor”  we hear the word-initial aspirated /t/, as well as the tap in the second “t”
oAffrication/retroflexion  In broad transcription, /t/ and /d/ are used, however in reality, the affricate form is
realized
The purpose of narrow transcription is to capture the smaller scale allophonic variation that occurs in a
word
How much narrow transcription is required?  You would be told how much; there’s technically no end of how much
phonetic detail you can include in narrow transcription!
oTone  /ˈtown/, [t own]ʰ
oKey  /ˈki/, [ kˈ ̟ i]ʰ
oStone  /ˈstown/, [ˈstown]
oButter  /ˈb t /, [ʌ əɹ ˈb ]ʌɾəɹ
oTracking  /ˈt æk ŋ/, [ɹ ɪ ˈtʃʷɹ̥æk ŋ]̟ɪ
oActive  /ˈækt v/, [ ækt v]  also includes ɪ ˈ ͡ ɪ ̥ overlapping: two stops of different place of articulation; stops are
overlapped in English, i.e. we keep the closure of the previous stop and proceed to releasing the next stop
The two stops are produced simultaneously (coarticulated!)
Note: approximant sounds become voiceless after voiceless consonants
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