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Lecture 6

LIN229H1 Lecture 6: Rules


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN229H1
Professor
chrisharvey
Lecture
6

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Lecture 6 - Rules February 13, 2017
Alternations
A morpheme may be pronounced identically in all instances. Think of the difference in
plural marking suffixes between the word house, tent, cabin and antenna.
[ha ͡ʊs-lɪs, tɛnt-lɪs, kæbɪn-lɪs, æntɛ-lɪs]
A morpheme may have an alternation for some speakers some of the time; (glottal stop
in antenna-ish), or it can have widespread contextual alternations.
Lexicon and Grammar (USE
TERMINOLOGY IN PROJECT 2)
Words have 2 forms
Underlying Representation
(UR)
o Stored in mental
lexicon
o One form per
morpheme
o Outputs of
morphology
Surface Form (SF)
o What people speak and perceive
Phonology works in the following order:
o Syntax Morphology /UR/ Phonological Processes [SF]
Focus on the phonological processes to determine UR
Rule Template
Recall: A B /C __ D: A sounds like B when in the environment of C and D
New concepts:
o [±front] feature only when necessary
Combining consonant and vowel PoA
Differentiate [DORSAL] kj, k, q
kj: [+high], [+front]
k: [+high], [-front]
q: [-high][-front]
o Consonant PoAs
[PHARYNGEAL]: pharyngeal
[GLOTTAL]: glottal and epiglottal
Case Study: Cuzco Quechua: uvulars are [DORSAL],[-high]
o A makes it appear as if a uvular sound must appear before AND after,
instead of either or
o D too complex
o B wrong formatting, we need curly brackets for natural classes to
indicate that it’s a set
o E can apply vacuously states that any [-low], [-back] vowel will change
to be [-hi]
There’s no [+high] be/c the value of high is irrelevant
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