Notes taken during lecture

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20 Jan 2011
LECTURE 02: Allophonic relations chapter 3 in the book
What govern pronunciation of words
Contrastive aspects cannot predict by rules
Allophonic changes governed by rules, therefore predictable
Phonetics is what you hear; underlying is phonological, in the mind, cannot be heard
therefore must look at data and infer the underlying representation
Physically very different between t and d
T and d are contrastive because they are two different phonemes
Have and had, said and set minimal pairs different only in t and d
Therefore in English, t and d are different phonemes
T versus aspirated t cannot find minimal pairs in English distinguishable only by the
difference in aspiration on t
Thus occur in different contexts
Predictability = test asking native speaker which allophone occurs can answer because
the occurance of one allophone is predictable, and thus native speaker may identify which
allophone should occur
Note the brackets - // for phonemes, [] for allophones
Have to occur in separate contexts
Complementary distribution
Phoneme occurs in majority of contexts, while allophone occurs in minority of context(s)
Complementary distribution see one where the other is never seen
Two different realizations of the same individual
Given two sounds A and B
1.Look for similar contexts in same context, two separate phonemes
Minimal pairs not a requirement of data analysis
Venda data two different phonemes because they are occur in the same context
Compare baboon and he; tooth and now; at your place and five
2.No minimal pair, then A and B are allophones of the same phoneme
Hindi from the brackets, recognize that A and B are underlying; from the next brackets,
recognize that A and B are also surface representations; thus A and B are different
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