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Lecture

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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN229H1
Professor
Rohany- Rahbar

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LECTURE 02: Allophonic relations โ€“ chapter 3 in the book
What govern pronunciation of words
Contrastive aspects โ€“ cannot predict by rules
Allophonic changes โ€“ governed by rules, therefore predictable
Phonetics is what you hear; underlying is phonological, in the mind, cannot be heard
therefore must look at data and infer the underlying representation
Physically very different between t and d
T and d are contrastive because they are two different phonemes
Have and had, said and set โ€“ minimal pairs different only in t and d
Therefore in English, t and d are different phonemes
T versus aspirated t โ€“ cannot find minimal pairs in English distinguishable only by the
difference in aspiration on t
Thus occur in different contexts
Predictability = test โ€“ asking native speaker which allophone occurs โ€“ can answer because
the occurance of one allophone is predictable, and thus native speaker may identify which
allophone should occur
Note the brackets - // for phonemes, [] for allophones
Have to occur in separate contexts
๎€Complementary distribution
Phoneme occurs in majority of contexts, while allophone occurs in minority of context(s)
Complementary distribution โ€“ see one where the other is never seen
๎€Two different realizations of the same individual
Given two sounds A and B
1.Look for similar contexts โ€“ in same context, two separate phonemes
๎€Minimal pairs not a requirement of data analysis
๎€Venda data โ€“ two different phonemes because they are occur in the same context
๎€Compare baboon and he; tooth and now; at your place and five
2.No minimal pair, then A and B are allophones of the same phoneme
Hindi โ€“ from the brackets, recognize that A and B are underlying; from the next brackets,
recognize that A and B are also surface representations; thus A and B are different
phonemes
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