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Lecture

Notes taken during lecture


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN229H1
Professor
Rohany- Rahbar

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LECTURE 7 – March 8th, 2011
Linear vs. Non-linear phonology –
Linear phonology – consider string of segments
Sometimes, though, need to go further and look at multilayer structure – something above level
of string of sounds and segments – NONLINEAR PHONOLOGY
3 parts -Syllable theory – today’s topic
-Metrical theory – next week
-Autosegmental theory – next, next week
-These are the three components of non-linear phonology
Syllable structure
-Hierarchical structure – tree
-ONSET, rhyme, nucleus, coda
oBranched nucleus – diphthong
-Some phontotactic constraints can be accounted for better if consider syllables
oFor instance in English, no kn in initial position
oBut Scandinavian has it – pronounceable but not in English (But okay in Old
English – knife – but eventually, k is silent)
oNEED SYLLABLE STRUCTURE
oAlso, some phonological processes understood after considering syllable
structure
Ex. epenthesis
Occurs because syllabification demands it
Cannot be accounted for by linear phonology
Syllabic structure
-Example from English – to account for h in English – occur beginning of
syllable/word, followed by vowel or glide
oMust easier to explain this way rather than features of linear phonology
oANOTHER EXAMPLE
Koryak – schwas present in lower set of data, not above set
To explain schwa epenthesis, consider template of language
Which is CVC – maximum syllable – can be smaller than
CVC, but NEVER BIGGER
P cannot follow t – so put schwa between => [tep]
Syllable boundary between p and velar nasal
After p, get CCVC structure – cannot have two CCs in
sequence – so schwa epenthesis between velar nasal and l
The final VC is okay – smaller than template
-TEMPLATE IS MAXIMAL SYLLABLE PERMITTED
-MINIMAL – if minimal is CVC – then VC IS NOT PERMITTED
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-There are different views over template – whether suffixes or stem considered – SO
DIFFERENT APPROACHES EXIST
Onset not counted as syllable weight ****
EXAMPLE FROM SPANISH
-Under lying n becomes velar in some positions
oIn all cases, n becomes velar in coda – after V
oSo can concluden becomes velar in coda position”
oShow how much easier to consider syllable structure as opposed to linear
phonology
NB – what’s in the readings but not in the lecture – NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR
Syllable weight
-Number of segments that can be assigned in coda, nucleus, etc.
-Important to consider what and how many can go in each position – for stress, for
instance
-CV – LIGHT syllable
-CVV – long vowel – HEAVY syllable
-Anything bigger than CV is heavy syllable
Consider timing units
-Quantity- sensitive
oQuantity refers to LENGTH
-Quality – refers to segments, features
-Single [ae] – one because it is a short vowel
-When have long [ae] – OR GEMINITE consonants – have TWO X’s
oTo easily distinguish between what’s long and short
-Advantages – having a : to indicate length is not as clear as having two instances of
the verb
-X represents the timing slots
-Representation – without X – must have “:
oTo indicate whether you mean long or short vowel
-The X level is the quantity level
oQuality level (its features) are at the level below X level
If nucleus or rhyme is branching – LONG, HEAVY syllables indicated
N is part of R – if N is branching, R is branching too – so HEAVY syllable
Some languages do not have long vowels or dipthongs – so only have rhyme branching – no
nucleus branching
-LANGUAGE-specific
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