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30 Mar 2011
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LECTURE 10 March, 30 2011
Phonological typology and naturalness
1. Inventory
a.Some segments more common than others
-Can determine a typology of the language, to see what is natural and what is not
-Some segments very common across languages
oOther segments much rarer
oMARKEDNESS: pattern or segment is very common, then UNMARKED
CV is unmarked
CCCCCVVCC is marked = uncommon, unnatural, rare
Not a either or choice but a SCALE
-Implicational relation
oWith have oral vowels, not sure if nasal vowels are there or not
oWith nasal vowels, KNOW that oral vowels also in inventory
-Languages have secondary articulation
oRounding most common; then palatalization
-Stops found in all language
-Fricatives also there, but can be absent in some Australian languages
-[i u a] are more marked than [I e a o u]
Assimilation
-Look at typology
-In Turkish, has backness and roundness harmony simultaneously
oNo lowering so height stays constant
oAssimilation occurs across consonants, but not across vowels
-In Kuria,
oPrefixes do not change height
Then when see variance in high and mid, assume mid underlying
-Klamath
oComplete assimilation
oLength belongs to suprasegmental level
-Nenets
oSee complete assimilation
-Kimatuumbi
Voicing v. common across languages
-In environment of voiced consonant or nasal, get voiced
Post-nasal hardening is the opposite of lenition
-Very common
Palatalization and affrication
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Document Summary

Inventory: some segments more common than others. Can determine a typology of the language, to see what is natural and what is not. Some segments very common across languages: other segments much rarer, markedness: pattern or segment is very common, then unmarked. cccccvvcc is marked = uncommon, unnatural, rare. not a either or choice but a scale. Implicational relation: with have oral vowels, not sure if nasal vowels are there or not, with nasal vowels, know that oral vowels also in inventory. Languages have secondary articulation: rounding most common; then palatalization. Fricatives also there, but can be absent in some australian languages. [i u a] are more marked than [i e a o u] In turkish, has backness and roundness harmony simultaneously: no lowering so height stays constant, assimilation occurs across consonants, but not across vowels. In kuria: prefixes do not change height. then when see variance in high and mid, assume mid underlying.

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