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Lecture

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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN229H1
Professor
Rohany- Rahbar

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LECTURE 10 March, 30 2011
Phonological typology and naturalness
1. Inventory
a.Some segments more common than others
-Can determine a typology of the language, to see what is natural and what is not
-Some segments very common across languages
oOther segments much rarer
oMARKEDNESS: pattern or segment is very common, then UNMARKED
CV is unmarked
CCCCCVVCC is marked = uncommon, unnatural, rare
Not a either or choice but a SCALE
-Implicational relation
oWith have oral vowels, not sure if nasal vowels are there or not
oWith nasal vowels, KNOW that oral vowels also in inventory
-Languages have secondary articulation
oRounding most common; then palatalization
-Stops found in all language
-Fricatives also there, but can be absent in some Australian languages
-[i u a] are more marked than [I e a o u]
Assimilation
-Look at typology
-In Turkish, has backness and roundness harmony simultaneously
oNo lowering so height stays constant
oAssimilation occurs across consonants, but not across vowels
-In Kuria,
oPrefixes do not change height
Then when see variance in high and mid, assume mid underlying
-Klamath
oComplete assimilation
oLength belongs to suprasegmental level
-Nenets
oSee complete assimilation
-Kimatuumbi
Voicing v. common across languages
-In environment of voiced consonant or nasal, get voiced
Post-nasal hardening is the opposite of lenition
-Very common
Palatalization and affrication
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Description
LECTURE 10 March, 30 2011 Phonological typology and naturalness 1. Inventory a. Some segments more common than others - Can determine a typology of the language, to seewhat is natural and what is not - Some segments very common across languages o Other segments much rarer o MARKEDNESS: pattern or segment is very common, then UNMARKED CV is unmarked CCCCCVVCC is marked = uncommon, unnatural, rare Not a either or choice but a SCALE - Implicational relation o With have oral vowels, not sure if nasal vowels are there or not o With nasal vowels, KNOW that oral vowels also in inventory - Languages have secondary articulation o Rounding most common; then palatalization - Stops found in all language - Fricatives also there, but c
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