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LIN100Y1 Lecture Notes - Morpheme, Tenuis Consonant

by OC2

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There are more than five vowels in English
- General Canadian/American English:14
- British English (BBC): 20
1. Airstream mechanisms
a. Direction of the airflow
- Egressive
Pulmonic Egressive. Most of the sounds of human languages are
produced by pushing air out of the lungs through the vocal tract.
- Ingressive
Pulmonic Implosives. If the sound is produced by breathing in, the sound
is produced by sucking air into the mouth. These are called.
b. Initiation mechanisms
Pulmonic > Lungs
Glottalic > Larynx
Velaric > Tongue
2. Place of articulation

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Bilabial: pin, bin, mink
Labiodental: fine, vine
Dental: Tim, Dan, no, Sam
Interdental: think, then
Alveolar: two, do, sue, zoo,
Palatal: chunk, judge
Velar: key, guy
Glottal: hair, hot
3. Manner of Articulation
a. Oral vs. nasal. Specifies whether the airflow is released by the nose or
the mouth.
Bilabial Dental Velar
Oral ban dot kick
Nasal man not king
b. Degree of stricture. Specifies to what degree is the constriction
between the articulators.
Stops Complete constriction between the articulators. The airflow is
blocked at the point where the articulators make contact. p21

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Fricatives The closure is incomplete. The air passing through the
articulators produces a turbulence and a hissing noise (friction).p22
c. Activity of the vocal folds / voiced and voiceless sounds
If the vocal folds are close together the airstream causes them to
vibrate producing voiced sounds.
If the vocal folds are apart, the vocal folds, would not vibrate,
producing then voiceless sounds.
One voiced (z) and one voiceless (s) sound
d. Affricates p23
are produced by a stop followed by a
fricative release
Aspirated pin There is air escaping comes after the release
and before the vowel.
Unaspirated spin The vowel comes after the release of the
Both are voiceless
Voice Onset Time (VOT)
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