- Syllabic: they can be the peak of a word( they are sonorous)
- vowels are sounds made with the vocal tract more open than for consonant and glide
- different vowel
(sounds) are articulated by varying the placement of the body of
the tongue and shaping the lips
- Vowel qualities can be further altered by
1. Protruding the lips (rounded vowels)
2. Lowering the velum (nasal vowels)
- Vowels can be tense of lax
- Complex and simple vowels
1. Simple vowels: the sound stays the same during the period of production of sounds
2. Complex vowels (diphthong): exhibit a change in sound and ends with a glide.
Diphthong –major(aj, aw, oj) easier to notice, minor (ej, ow) not so easy to notice
- Major parameters(characterization) in vowel articulation: height, place of articulation in
oral cavity, tense/lax and rounding of the lips
- Tense vowels are generally longer in duration, a little higher in tongue position and
in pitch than their corresponding lax vowel.
- [ʌ] and [ə] are neither front, nor back, neither high, nor low. They are mid, central, lax
- [ʌ] is often times stressed in English, in words like putt and butt
- [ə] is called a schwa or a reduced vowel. Sounds like ‘어’ and is in sofa and telephone
- besides their inherent features, phones also have specific suprasegmental or prosodic
- 3 properties of suprasegmentals: pitch, loudness and length
Pitch: high or low? Sonorous (voiced, nasal, liquids and nasal) sounds are more manipulative.
1. speakers of any human language have the ability to control the level of pitch
2. It is made by controlling the tension of the vocal folds and the amount of air that
passes through the glottis
3. the combination of tense vocal folds and greater air pressure: higher pitch
4. less tense vocal folds and lower air pressure: lower pitch
- Can dictate the meaning of a sentence or a word. A cat. A cat?
- Tone languages such as mandarin: tone totally dictates the meaning of a word
( 4성조가 ‘ma’에 올라가면 네 단어가 다 다른의미.)
- Level tones: high, mid and low tone
- Register tones: level tones that signal meaning differences (the diacritic [´] indicates a
high tone, and the diacritic [`] indicates a low tone)
- Coutour tones: change pitch within a single syllabic element (e.g. Mandarin Ma)
- in some languages, tone can be used to signal differences in tense of a verb
- Downdrift: pitch 가 가장 같지는 않음. High tone 이 낮아지면 low tone 도 낮아지면 됨.
- Small oral cavity: high pitch/ Big oral cavity: lower pitch
- pitch movement not related to differences in word meaning is called intonation
- Every language has intonation
Her name is Lauren. Is her name is Lauren?
- Terminal intonation - incomplete; inviting an answer
- Intonation and tone can be used together
- tone are not absolute but relative pitches
- linguists indicate length
by the use of the IPA style colon [ː] (or simply a colon [:] in North
American transcription)- 더 길면 [:] 붙임
- In some languages, length of the word defines the meaning
- the acute accent [ ´ ] marks primary stress (the most prominent)
- the grave accent [ ` ] marks secondary stress (the second most prominent)
- Stress syllables are of higher pitch and are louder and longer
- stress is also important in English for disambiguating between lexical forms
(e.g. ) export [ɛ´ksport] and expórt [ɛkspo´rt]. Depending on where the stress is, one is a
noun and the other one verb
- as articulatory organs operate independently of each other, many adjustments have to be
made in order to produce fast speech
- as a result of these processes, the articulation of one sound affects the surrounding
sounds and the movements can overlap in time
- quite often, more than one articulator is active in order to allow the production of fast
speech (called coarticulation)
- The faster you speak, more coarticulation occurs.
- The English vowel nasalization is called regressive assimilation
- voicing assimilation: as in the case of liquids and glides which become voiceless after
- eliminating a sound in case of challenging pronunciations to make it easier (e.g.
fifth’s[fifθs] – [fifts] ( segment deletion)
- When a segment is inserted
- in English usually when a nasal consonant is followed by a non-nasal consonant the two
need to have the same place of articulation and we often see signs of assimilation.
- a process that moves phonemes from one place in the word to another
- e.g. ask [ask] to [aks]
- the process by which a dental or an alveolar stop articulation changes to a flap
- Always voiced
- the articulation of vowels may move to a more central position when the vowels are
- usually, the outcome of vowel reduction is [ə]