LIN100Y1 Lecture Notes - Nasal Consonant, Vocal Folds, Downdrift

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19 Apr 2012
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Linguistics 2011-09-26
Vowels
- Syllabic: they can be the peak of a word( they are sonorous)
- vowels are sounds made with the vocal tract more open than for consonant and glide
productions
- different vowel
qualities
(sounds) are articulated by varying the placement of the body of
the tongue and shaping the lips
- Vowel qualities can be further altered by
1. Protruding the lips (rounded vowels)
2. Lowering the velum (nasal vowels)
- Vowels can be tense of lax
- Complex and simple vowels
1. Simple vowels: the sound stays the same during the period of production of sounds
2. Complex vowels (diphthong): exhibit a change in sound and ends with a glide.
Diphthong major(aj, aw, oj) easier to notice, minor (ej, ow) not so easy to notice
- Major parameters(characterization) in vowel articulation: height, place of articulation in
oral cavity, tense/lax and rounding of the lips
Tense& lax
- Tense vowels are generally longer in duration, a little higher in tongue position and
in pitch than their corresponding lax vowel.
Schwa
- [ʌ] and [ə] are neither front, nor back, neither high, nor low. They are mid, central, lax
vowels
- [ʌ] is often times stressed in English, in words like putt and butt
- [ə] is called a schwa or a reduced vowel. Sounds like ‘어’ and is in sofa and telephone
Suprasegmentals
- besides their inherent features, phones also have specific suprasegmental or prosodic
properties
- 3 properties of suprasegmentals: pitch, loudness and length
Pitch: high or low? Sonorous (voiced, nasal, liquids and nasal) sounds are more manipulative.
1. speakers of any human language have the ability to control the level of pitch
2. It is made by controlling the tension of the vocal folds and the amount of air that
passes through the glottis
3. the combination of tense vocal folds and greater air pressure: higher pitch
4. less tense vocal folds and lower air pressure: lower pitch
Tone
- Can dictate the meaning of a sentence or a word. A cat. A cat?
- Tone languages such as mandarin: tone totally dictates the meaning of a word
( 4성조가 ma’에 올라가 단어 다른의미.)
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