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Lecture

LIN100Y1 Lecture Notes - Acoustic Phonetics, Auditory Phonetics, Phonetics

8 Pages
91 Views
Fall 2009

Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN100Y1
Professor
K.Kyumin

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LIN100
Lecture 2: Phonetics I
Today’s goal:
- To learn anatomy and mechanism of speech
production
- To understand the IPA system as transcription tool
- To learn (a part of) the inventory of consonants in
world’s languages
- To learn about description of consonants
Phonetics
Examination of
- Inventory
- Structure
of speech sounds
Sounds used in speech = speech sounds
or phones
Branches of phonetics
• Articulatory phonetics: physiological
mechanism of speech production
• Acoustic phonetics: physics of speech sounds,
i.e., sound waves
• Auditory phonetics: perception of speech
sounds
This course
• Articulatory phonetics: physiological
mechanism of speech production
• Acoustic phonetics: physics of speech sounds,
i.e., sound waves
• Auditory phonetics: perception of speech
sounds
Inventory of speech sounds
Limited to a set of sounds
Many sounds are repeatedly found in languages.
2
Transcription
We want to transcribe utterances
unanimously
- within a language
- across languages
Transcription
Orthography?
Not good
Why not orthography
Orthography
one-to-one correspondence between the sound
and the symbol
The same sound spelled in more than one way
www.notesolution.com
• English [k]:
<c> car, <k> kin, <ck> lick, <ch> monarch,
<q> quick
• English [tu]:
to, two, too
The same symbol(s) representing different
sounds
• E.g., ough in tough, though, trough, through,
thorough
Variation across languages
English: u, ou, oo
French: ou
Japanese: ?
3
Solution
A standardized system with one-to-one
correspondence between the sound and symbol
One sound One symbol
Solution
One sound One symbol
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
(http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/ipachart.html)
A set of phonetic symbols recommended by the
International Phonetic Association (IPA)
Orthography IPA transcription
English: u, ou, oo, etc. [u]
French: ou [u]
Japanese: ? [u]
[ ]: phonetic transcription
Paths to mastering of transcription
• Learn the IPA, i.e., the sounds (or other
characteristics of speech) and corresponding
symbols
• Introspect your articulation
• Practice, practice, practice
• Understand the anatomy involved in the
production of speech sounds
Vocal organs Vocal organs
Source of air
Vocal tract: Filtering/Colouring of sound
Vocal folds:
sound source
4
Larynx
A box containing vocal folds
Glottal states
• Voiceless: Vocal folds widely pulled apart
• Voiced: Vocal folds pulled close together and
www.notesolution.com
open repeatedly (= vibration) regularly due to
air passing between the folds
Video of vocal folds vibration: http://www.ladefogeds.com/
vowels/chapter2/vibrating%20cords/vibrating.html
Glottal states
• Murmur/breathy voiced: Vocal folds loosely
(and slowly) vibrating; glottis not fully closed
• Whisper: Front portions of the vocal folds are
pulled close together
• Creaky: Vocal folds pressed tightly together,
vibrating slowly, largely blocking the airflow
Vocal tract: air passages above the vocal
folds
Oral cavity
Modifications of airflow in the oral cavity
creates a lot of different sounds
Articulators: parts of the vocal tract that can be
used to form speech sounds
Lower articulator articulates against upper
articulator
Upper/Passive articulators
• The upper lip
• The upper teeth (notably the frontal incisors)
• The upper surface of the mouth
– The alveolar ridge: a small protuberance just behind the
upper teeth
– The hard palate: a bony structure of the front part of the
roof of the mouth
– The soft palate, or velum: a muscular flap at the back of the
mouth
– The uvula: a small appendage hanging down at the lower
end of the soft palate
• The pharyngeal wall
5
Lower/Active articulators
• The lower lip
• (The lower teeth)
• The tongue
The tongue – a large muscular organ
Nasal cavity
Oral Nasal
Speech is continuum
X-ray video: http://www.ladefogeds.com/course/
transcription%20exercises/moviepage.htm
Segments
Evidence for segments (individual sounds) as
psychological reality
Speech error: melcome wat for welcome mat
www.notesolution.com

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Description
LIN100 Lecture 2: Phonetics I Todays goal: To learn anatomy and mechanism of speech production To understand the IPA system as transcription tool To learn (a part of) the inventory of consonants in worlds languages To learn about description of consonants Phonetics Examination of Inventory Structure of speech sounds Sounds used in speech = speech sounds or phones Branches of phonetics Articulatory phonetics: physiological mechanism of speech production Acoustic phonetics: physics of speech sounds, i.e., sound waves Auditory phonetics: perception of speech sounds This course Articulatory phonetics: physiological mechanism of speech production Acoustic phonetics: physics of speech sounds, i.e., sound waves Auditory phonetics: perception of speech sounds Inventory of speech sounds Limited to a set of sounds Many sounds are repeatedly found in languages. 2 Transcription We want to transcribe utterances unanimously within a language across languages Transcription Orthography? Not good Why not orthography Orthography onetoone correspondence between the sound and the symbol The same sound spelled in more than one way www.notesolution.com
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