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Lecture

LIN100Y1 Lecture Notes - Acoustic Phonetics, Auditory Phonetics, Phonetics


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN100Y1
Professor
K.Kyumin

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LIN100
Lecture 2: Phonetics I
Today’s goal:
- To learn anatomy and mechanism of speech
production
- To understand the IPA system as transcription tool
- To learn (a part of) the inventory of consonants in
world’s languages
- To learn about description of consonants
Phonetics
Examination of
- Inventory
- Structure
of speech sounds
Sounds used in speech = speech sounds
or phones
Branches of phonetics
• Articulatory phonetics: physiological
mechanism of speech production
• Acoustic phonetics: physics of speech sounds,
i.e., sound waves
• Auditory phonetics: perception of speech
sounds
This course
• Articulatory phonetics: physiological
mechanism of speech production
• Acoustic phonetics: physics of speech sounds,
i.e., sound waves
• Auditory phonetics: perception of speech
sounds
Inventory of speech sounds
Limited to a set of sounds
Many sounds are repeatedly found in languages.
2
Transcription
We want to transcribe utterances
unanimously
- within a language
- across languages
Transcription
Orthography?
Not good
Why not orthography
Orthography
one-to-one correspondence between the sound
and the symbol
The same sound spelled in more than one way
www.notesolution.com

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• English [k]:
<c> car, <k> kin, <ck> lick, <ch> monarch,
<q> quick
• English [tu]:
to, two, too
The same symbol(s) representing different
sounds
• E.g., ough in tough, though, trough, through,
thorough
Variation across languages
English: u, ou, oo
French: ou
Japanese: ?
3
Solution
A standardized system with one-to-one
correspondence between the sound and symbol
One sound One symbol
Solution
One sound One symbol
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
(http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/ipachart.html)
A set of phonetic symbols recommended by the
International Phonetic Association (IPA)
Orthography IPA transcription
English: u, ou, oo, etc. [u]
French: ou [u]
Japanese: ? [u]
[ ]: phonetic transcription
Paths to mastering of transcription
• Learn the IPA, i.e., the sounds (or other
characteristics of speech) and corresponding
symbols
• Introspect your articulation
• Practice, practice, practice
• Understand the anatomy involved in the
production of speech sounds
Vocal organs Vocal organs
Source of air
Vocal tract: Filtering/Colouring of sound
Vocal folds:
sound source
4
Larynx
A box containing vocal folds
Glottal states
• Voiceless: Vocal folds widely pulled apart
• Voiced: Vocal folds pulled close together and
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open repeatedly (= vibration) regularly due to
air passing between the folds
Video of vocal folds vibration: http://www.ladefogeds.com/
vowels/chapter2/vibrating%20cords/vibrating.html
Glottal states
• Murmur/breathy voiced: Vocal folds loosely
(and slowly) vibrating; glottis not fully closed
• Whisper: Front portions of the vocal folds are
pulled close together
• Creaky: Vocal folds pressed tightly together,
vibrating slowly, largely blocking the airflow
Vocal tract: air passages above the vocal
folds
Oral cavity
Modifications of airflow in the oral cavity
creates a lot of different sounds
Articulators: parts of the vocal tract that can be
used to form speech sounds
Lower articulator articulates against upper
articulator
Upper/Passive articulators
• The upper lip
• The upper teeth (notably the frontal incisors)
• The upper surface of the mouth
– The alveolar ridge: a small protuberance just behind the
upper teeth
– The hard palate: a bony structure of the front part of the
roof of the mouth
– The soft palate, or velum: a muscular flap at the back of the
mouth
– The uvula: a small appendage hanging down at the lower
end of the soft palate
• The pharyngeal wall
5
Lower/Active articulators
• The lower lip
• (The lower teeth)
• The tongue
The tongue – a large muscular organ
Nasal cavity
Oral Nasal
Speech is continuum
X-ray video: http://www.ladefogeds.com/course/
transcription%20exercises/moviepage.htm
Segments
Evidence for segments (individual sounds) as
psychological reality
Speech error: melcome wat for welcome mat
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