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Lecture 3

LIN100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Deep Structure And Surface Structure, Move


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN100Y1
Professor
Elaine Gold
Lecture
3

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LIN 100 Introduction to General Linguistics
Week 15 January 26, 2016: Syntax III
MOVE Operations/ Transformations
Assumptions
elements combine according to X' schema (merge) to create the basic structure
called deep structure DS (looks like active declarative sentence)
other constructions can be created through movement/transformation (move) to
create the final spoken/written form called surface structure SS
A.
Yes-No
Questions - how are
yes-no
questions formed from statements? Consider:
Sam will be here at noon. Max can play the piano. Adults should drink milk.
1. Inversion: Move T to C
assume all sentences have CP shell, not just embedded clauses
interrogative sentences have feature +Q in C; +Q feature attracts modal in T to C
everything in T moves to C; leave only a copy of T label behind
anything that moves leaves a trace
t
in the original position
Note: always co-index
t
with the moved word (ie. put the same subscript
number or letter on both the moved word and the trace)
eg.
willi …… ti
(text doesn’t) arrows are not necessary if traces co-indexed
What is the deep structure of:
Can my friends stay for dinner? Should Jen fry the onions?
Draw the DS and SS of:
Will that book about syntax always be available?
Thinking Like A Linguists: How do we know that C is the landing site?
Evidence: It appears that T can't move if C filled
Consider: i.
Ann asked "Should Al come?"
should
has moved -> C
ii.
Ann asked whether Al should come.
whether
in C,
should
doesn't move
iii. *
Ann asked whether should Al come.
*
Ann asked should whether Al come.
ungrammatical if
should
moves and
whether
present; suggests both go to the same place!
B.
Wh-
Questions contain
Wh
-words N:
who, whom, what
Det:
which
How are
wh-
questions formed? Replace the underlined element with a question word:
Jay should mend the socks. Sal will see that man. The maid ruined this dress.
Inversion +
Wh-
Movement:
Wh-
word moves into Specifier of CP position
1.
Wh-
words as complement of V; Finding the DS of
Wh
-questions:
put in active declarative SVO form; the DS might not sound natural
SS:
Whom will Jack meet?
DS:
Jack will meet whom.
It might help to substitute a noun for the
wh
-word to make DS sound better:
eg.
Jack will meet whom. Jack will meet Mary
.
What is the DS of:
What can the babies wear?
Draw the DS and SS of:
Which horse should Ken ride?
Note: move the whole NP structure; leave a copy of the NP label and a trace
be sure to co-index traces! each moved element has a different index
eg.
Whom2 will1 Jack t1 meet t2?
2.
Wh-
words as complement of P two ways of moving:
a. Move
Wh
-NP alone and strand P at end:
Who(m) should Lou give the book to?
b. Move whole PP: Draw the DS and SS for:
To whom should Lou give the book?
Pied Piping: phenomenon when
wh-
word pulls other words in the phrase to the front,
like the children following the Pied Piper; can say that P is ‘pied-piped’ to spec CP
3.
Wh-
in subject position:
What is DS of:
Who will come to the party? Which bin contains shoes?
Again, it might help to substitute a noun or determiner for the
wh-
word
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