LIN100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Articulatory Phonetics, Auditory Phonetics, Phonetic Transcription

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Grammar principles, rules, and constraints that constitute language. Competence ability to judge what is acceptable or unacceptable in language, not ability to speak perfectly. All languages have: generality (all languages have grammar, mutability (grammars change over time, universality (all grammars have structural similarities, parity (all grammars are equal, inaccessibility (linguistic competence is subconscious) Syntactic sequence of words in a sentence. Speech production acoustic signal speech perception and comprehension: articulatory phonetics: production of speech sounds, acoustic phonetics: realization of speech sounds, auditory phonetics: perception of speech sounds. Problem with orthography: designed for only english, needs to be universal. Variation across languages: english (u, ou, oo), french (ou) different sounds. Ipa [u: [ ] = phonetic transcription, [u] = segment. Lips: upper and lower (b, p, f, v) Teeth: upper and lower (s, sh, th) Hard palate (curl tip of tongue to back of mouth - retroflex) Tongue: tip, blade (ch, zh), body (yes), back (dorsum g, k, gna), root (snore)

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