LMP299Y1 Lecture Notes - Obstructive Lung Disease, Coronary Artery Disease, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
Diagnosis usually requires objective evidence of the pathologic process. Examples are:
o Demonstration of specific biochemical abnormality
o Visualization of a tumor by ultrasound imaging
o Finding an inflamed appendix at surgery
o Isolation of a bacillus or virus
o Location of a lesion in the tissue by biopsy
o Pathology (Anatomic) includes: Histology (tissues) and cytology (cells)
o Hematology includes: Blood transfusion medicine and immunology
o Microbiology includes: Bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology
o Biochemistry or clinical chemistry includes: Chemicals and chemical markers
o Genetics includes: Molecular diagnostics
o Biochemistry analyzes chemical markers found in cells and fluids (e.g. blood, serum, urine, etc.)
o Relatively non-invasive and safe
o Small amount sample is often enough for analysis
o Many tests (assays lab test) have been developed to a high degree of sensitivity and accuracy, as well as
fast speed of analysis
o 70% of the medical decisions are based on lab test and 70% of the tests are based on biochemistry
o A marker is a chance or entity that gives you some kind of indication for a particular disease
1. Help define as objectively as possible the health and disease
2. Help predict the course of a disease
3. Monitor the effectiveness of treatment
4. Seek for underlying causes of disease
5. To screen for unsuspected disease
o Diagnosis: ex. How does the glucose level indicate diabetes? There is a simple measurement of blood glucose
o Prognosis: ex. What is risk of having a heart attack in cardiovascular disease? Cholesterol level can be used to
indicate the percentage of risk
o Monitoring: ex. Has enough of medication been given? Measure the level of drugs in the spleen
o Etiology: ex: What is the cause of a drug overdose? The environment, the type of drug and amount of drug
taken is key
o Screening: ex. Does the patient have early kidney disease? Early diagnosis helps reduce the damage
and allows for early treatment
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MORTALITY: disease that causes death or reduces life expectancy. How many or how often does death occur due
to the disease?
MORBIDITY: disease that impairs the well-being of an individual. How a disease may impair the individual?
1. Ischemic heart disease (2)
2. Cerebrovascular disease (strokes) (3)
3. Lower respiratory infections
4. Chronic obstructive lung disease (4)
5. Diarrheal diseases (Infectious disease)
6. HIV/AIDS (Infectious disease)
7. Tuberculosis (Infectious disease)
8. Cancer of trachea/ lung/ bronchus (1)
9. Prematurity and low birth weight
10. Diabetes mellitus (Type 2)
In Canada, the main causes of death in 2009 are indicated in blue. 5. Accidents (Unintentional Injury)
In Ontario, the main causes of hospitalization are:
- Young people (20 -30s): childbirth and accidents
- Middle aged (50 60s): cardiac disease and strokes
- Elderly (70 80s): cardiac, stroke, cancer, respiratory, mental diseases
The prevalence of disease is the number of cases of disease in a given population
The incidence of disease can be calculated as the number of new cases/ unit of time
- Endemic is when most of the population has the disease. Ex. In some African countries, one in four people
have HIV
- Epidemic refers to widespread occurrence in a population where it is rare. Ex. The flu
- Anatomical (based on body location): e.g. cardiac disease
- Physiological (describe a particular function): e.g. endocrine disease
- Systemic involves many systems or the whole body: e.g. infections
- Etiology by the cause of disease
the genes and genetics that have been passed on the individual
Garrod (1909) introduced the concept of inborn errors of metabolism
Inheritance leads to failure of function (Mendelian inheritance)
Identified from studies of individual gene analysis to human population studies
Often early but can occur at any age
Examples: sickle cell anemia
Refers to disease appearing at birth
Not always hereditary
E.g. Maternal measles, fetal alcohol syndrome
Trauma or mechanical injury can lead to necrosis (unnatural cell death) or loss of tissue
Physical Injury: leads to disease conditions caused by mechanical stress, burns, heat stroke, frost bite,
electrical hazards, radiation exposure and atmospheric pressure injuries
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Document Summary

Lecture one: introduction to the biochemistry of human disease. Diagnosis usually requires objective evidence of the pathologic process. Examples are: demonstration of specific biochemical abnormality, visualization of a tumor by ultrasound imaging, finding an inflamed appendix at surgery, isolation of a bacillus or virus, location of a lesion in the tissue by biopsy. Medical laboratory services: pathology (anatomic) includes: histology (tissues) and cytology (cells, hematology includes: blood transfusion medicine and immunology, microbiology includes: bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, biochemistry or clinical chemistry includes: chemicals and chemical markers, genetics includes: molecular diagnostics. Objections of lab medicine: help define as objectively as possible the health and disease, help predict the course of a disease, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, seek for underlying causes of disease, to screen for unsuspected disease. There is a simple measurement of blood glucose: prognosis: ex. Cholesterol level can be used to indicate the percentage of risk: monitoring: ex.

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