LMP301 Lecture 15: Lecture 15.pdf

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Lecture'15'–'Cancer'and'tumour'markers'
Objectives'
" Define!cancer!
" Discuss!process!leading!to!cancer!
" Consequences!of!cancer!–!what!happens!to!the!patient!after!they!have!been!diagnosed!with!cancer!and!the!disease!
progression!
" Define!and!discuss!tumour!markers/cancer!markers!
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Incidence'and'mortality'by'disease'
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" Why!is!it!important!to!study!cancer?!Because!it’s!one!of!the!disease!that!affects!a!large!population!of!people!
" Males!and!females!are!prone!to!different!types!of!cancer!
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Definition'
" Cancer!(neoplasia)!–!means!new!growth!and!the!new!growth!is!a!neoplasm!
" Tumour!–!originally!applied!to!swelling.!Today!is!equate!with!neoplasm!–!Tumour!!the!physical!entity!
" Oncology!(Greek=Tumour)!–!is!the!study!of!tumours!or!neoplasms!
" Cancer!–!common!term!for!all!malignant!tumours!
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What'is'cancer?'
" Multistep!process!–!but!starts!with!one!cell!!
" A!cell!becomes!modified!and!begins!to!multiply!uncontrolled!–!loses!its!ability!to!maintain!differentiation!!all!
tissues!that!develop!into!a!tumour!are!from!cells!that!were!originally!differentiated!and!at!some!point!they!lost!
ability!to!remain!differentiated!and!start!to!multiply!again!
" Local!inhibitory!systems!cannot!control!it!–!thus!keep!multiplying!
" Often!invades!other!parts!of!the!body!–!can!go!beyond!original!tissue!!
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Clonal'theory'of'tumorigenesis'
" One!of!the!cells!will!lose!its!ability!to!remain!differentiated!for!a!number!of!reasons!
" Stop!controlling!the!inhibitory!mechanisms!
" Multiple!cells!will!originate!from!that!
" That!will!cause!a!tumour!
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Etiology'of'cancer'
" Initial!DNA!damage!–!carcinogens,!radiation,!chemicals,!viruses,!unknown!
o Chromosomes!are!being!affected!!
" Chromosome!breakdown!and!rearrangement!–!loss!of!growth!control!>>!loss!of!chromosome!stability!
o Not!every!cell!with!chromosome!breakdown!will!be!successful!in!survival!–!few!ones!that!are!successful!
and!survive!continue!growing!!have!new!pattern!of!expression!and!can!express!oncogenes!–!that!will!
result!in!the!production!of!the!original!tumour!
" Selection!of!successfully!growing!mutant!cells;!new!patterns!of!gene!expression:!expression!of!oncogenes!
INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY BY
DISEASE
From the Canadian Cancer Society 2009 Statistics
Clonal Theory of Tumorigenesis
Nature 411, 349-354, 2001
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