10.2 Parametric Equations & Polar Coordinates
Calculus With Parametric Curves
Question #3 (Medium): Concavity Based on the 2 ND Derivative of Parametric Equations
Concavity is determined by the second derivative. When the second derivative is positive, it is concave
up; and when the second derivative is negative, it is concave down. Given for parametric
equations, its second derivative is given by . Notice the numerator where derivative of is
taken with respect to parameter , while it is still divided by .