MGY277H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Ming Dynasty, Phenol, Antiseptic

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Unit 1 - Perspective
Perspective of Infectious Disease
Ebola Outbreak
History of Infectious disease
Bubonic Plague (1346-1353)
Cholera (spread by contaminated water, continue to persist)
Influenza pandemic in 1918 (Made major impact on the calculated life
expectancy)
Then Vs. Now
Infectious disease were major killer in 1900 in Western Country
(Influenza, tuberculosis, gastroentitis)
Now the major killer are “old people disease” like cancers
Infectious disease remain a major killer in Low-income countries
oWith additional new disease like HIV
oChildren are getting hit the most
Vaccine & Antibiotics
By the understanding of causes in infectious disease, our life expectancy
doubled over the past century
Established public safety departments (Water and Food supply)
Smallpox is one of the most success case (all virus extinct)
Result in an accumulation of larger population, older and healthier
Also mean the disease target has shifted
Challenges Ahead
Antibiotic Resistance
Newly Emerging & Re-Emerging/Evolving Disease
Modern society system of have made impossible to contain a disease
The Gap between developing and developed country
oWe will not be able to conquer infectious disease if Poverty and Poor
health care continuously exist
What is Microbiology?
Microbiology is the study of micro-organisms / microbes (Subfield of Biology)
Microbes biological entities that can’t be seen with the naked eyes
(Living or Non-living)
Germs = Microbes = Micro-organisms
Sub-disciplines in Microbiology
Bacteriology
Mycology (study of fungi)
Parasitology (study of disease-causing eukaryotic microbes)
Virology
Environmental Microbiology / Microbioecologist (study of microbes that live
in the environment soil,water,etx)
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Food Microbiology (microbes use to produce food)
Medical Microbiology – The study of mirobes that cause disease
oPathogens are microbes that casue disease (Patho=suffering,
gens=give rise to)
Epidemiology – the study of disease outbreaks (and more)
oOriginated from John Snow to map the cases of cholera
oGive rise to the formation of public health department
oRecent years, epidemiology are applied to find causes of non-
infectious disease (food choice, obesity)
Communicable Vs. Non-Communicable Diseases
Communicable = infectious disease  can be spread from person to
person/animals and involve with microbe or parasite
oSexual disease
oRespiratory infection
oetc
Non-Communicable Disease = Can not spread from person to person, and
does NOT involved microbe
oHeart disease
oCancer
oEtc
History of Microbes
Most Microbes are not harmful and found everywhere
They created this earth The great oxygenation event lead to the first mass
extinction but also burst of life
No Microbe = No Oxygen
No Microbe = No Agriculture
Microbes are useful
Food production (Alcohol, yogurt, chocolate, cheese)
Biotechnology
oDiscovery of DNA
oE.coli
Synthesis commercially valuable chemicals
oAcetic acid = vinegerate
oInsulin
oMSG
Biodegradation of environmental pollutants (detoxify industrial chemicals)
Types of Microbes
Living Microbes Bacteria, Prokaryotes (Archaea, Eucarya/Bacteria)
Carl Woese proposed prokaryotes to be distinct from bacteria
More Complex More Evolve
Eukaryotes
oAlgae
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