04 - corona - notes.docx

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Jan 16 2012
Torovirus (genus)
BRV= Breda virus. Causes gastroenteritis/diarrhea in cattle, non-culturable
BEV= Berne virus, prototype
bovine toroviruses were found to play a role in respiratory, digestive, and reproductive disorders of
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infects chickens
MHV= murine hepatitis virus
TGEV=Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a major pathogen causing a fatal diarrhoea in newborn
Filamentous look which one?
Crown look b/c optical slice through virus
Gonzalez, Arch Virol 2003 Fig. 13. Architectures of virus particles of the prototype Nidovirales members.
are cartoons depicting possible organizations of A Coronavirus [21]. B Torovirus [71]. C
Arterivirus [73]. D Ronivirus (modified from an scheme by Peter Walker, Indooroopilly,
Australia [75]) virions as deduced from available results. MEM, lipid membrane; CS, core
shell; NC, nucleocapsid; N, nucleoprotein; M, membrane protein with the amino-terminal
end facing the outside of the virus and the carboxyterminus located inside the virion; M’,
membrane protein with both the amino- and the carboxy-terminal end facing virus surface;
E, envelope protein; S, spike protein; HE, hemagglutinin-esterase; Gs, small glycoprotein;
Gl, large glycoprotein
Based on genome sequences and antigenic relationships coronaviruses fall into 3 groups
First identified in 60s induce 30% of colds in population colds can be used by rhino or coronaviruses
bulk is rhino
Procin, bovine, avian coronaviruses attack agriculture, livestock
Common cold limited mortality so little interest in coronavirus until SARS
OC43 and HKU attack the old
SARS first example of coronavirus with significant pathogenicity in humans
MHV mouse hepatitis virus
Figure 1. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Pol) of the 10 coronaviruses with
complete genome sequences
available before SARS (panel A), and that of all coronaviruses with complete genome sequences
available by the end of 2008 (panel B). The
trees were constructed by neighbor joining method using Kimura’s two-parameter correction and
bootstrap values calculated from 1000 trees.
948 and 958 amino acid positions in Pol were included in the two analyses, respectively. The scale bars
indicate the estimated number of
substitutions per 10 amino acids. HCoV-229E, human coronavirus 229E (NC_002645); PEDV, porcine
epidemic diarrhea virus (NC_003436);
TGEV, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (NC_002306); FCoV, feline coronavirus (AY994055);
PRCV, porcine respiratory coronavirus
(DQ811787); HCoV-NL63, human coronavirus NL63 (NC_005831); bat-CoV-HKU2 (EF203064), HKU4
(NC_009019), HKU5 (NC_009020),
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HKU8 (NC_010438), HKU9 (NC_009021), 1A (NC_010437), 1B (NC_010436), 512/2005 (NC_009657);
HCoV-HKU1, human coronavirus
HKU1 (NC_006577), HCoV-OC43, human coronavirus OC43 (NC_005147); MHV, mouse hepatitis virus
(NC_006852); BCoV, bovine
coronavirus (NC_003045); PHEV, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (NC_007732); ECoV,
equine coronavirus (NC_010327);
SARS-CoV, SARS coronavirus (NC_004718); bat-SARS-CoV-HKU3, bat-SARS coronavirus HKU3
(NC_009694); IBV, infectious bronchitis
virus (NC_001451); TCoV, turkey coronavirus (NC_010800); SW1, beluga whale coronavirus (NC_010646);
BuCoV-HKU11, Bulbul coronavirus
HKU11 (NC_011548); ThCoV-HKU12, Thrush coronavirus HKU12 (NC_011549); MuCoV-HKU13, Munia
coronavirus HKU13 (NC_011550). A
color version of this figure is available in the online journal
For the most part coronaviruses cause mild disease in humans and most often associated with colds
(upper respiratory infections), gastroenteritis, encephalitis however, they can also infect other sites of
the body causing other diseases such as diarrhea (gastroenteritis) and deeper into the lungs causing
pneumonia (lower respiratory tract infection) which was seen with SARS
Can cause repeated infections…does not induce long lasting immunity
Devastating outbreaks of gastro and resp dz in cattle, pigs and chickens
Transmitted through direct contact
SARS through direct contact, aerosol droplets and contaminated stool
Up until 2003, little was known about coronaviruses and since they had little clinical impact there was
not a lot of time and effort spent on learning about them….then SARS hit
Initially unknown cause
Severe respiratory issues
Culturing indicated negative for pneumonia
Fever, cough, problems breathing some gastrointestinal issues but not as large as lung influence
Two pulses of the disease
- Waning of second surge because of maintaining vigilant handcare and contaminment
spreading from patient to RN to next patient
- To control the epidemic once controlled, waned
On the virion crown like structures
- Enveloped virus lipid bilayer inserted into which spike protein, E protein, M protein
- E for envelope, M for Matrix, S for spike M most abundant, then S, then E least abundant in
- Underneath is ncuelo capside
- Single stranded RNA 0 wrapped in N protein helical geometry unlike most other positive
viruses not icosahedral
So let’s take a closer look the genome now and highlight the similarities and differences.
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