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Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Timothy Hughes

2012-10-02 Generic models or regulation of transcription - Models come from bacteria - For yeasts, the regulatory elements can’t be moved too far away or it won’t work Models of action - Enhancer: acts at a distance, piece of DNA that when put into report construct, can put in any orientation anywhere relative to the transcription start site and it will turn on transcription o Sequence of DNA that have many TF binding sites - Silencer: similar to enhancer except it’s the negative regulator. Locally recruit repressive elements. Can spread, but not many of these silencers present - Insulator: blocks activity as go down the chromosome. The enhancer cannot get to promoter beucz there’s insulator in btw. Usually influence the DNA it’s on, so there may be a linear DNA scanning by them. - Locus control region: not very common to have this arrangement in the genome - Question skipped =D Major areas of research - Cataloging is done by diff methods - Big area of research - Many different proteins working together Gene co-expression reflects gene function in mouse - 2D Clustering diagram, aka heat map - Genes that are needed in specific places are expressed there - Most of the conserved/functional regions in the genome are the regulatory elements 81 DNA-binding domains in representative sequenced eukaryotes - Putative TF: contains a domain that among characterized proteins is a TF - Genes/binding sites are multiplied--> duplication How do we determine sequence specificity of a DNA-binding protein? - Could look in vivo or in vitro (pools of DNA or microarray) - All bind to DNA sequences just the affinity is different - Fav sequence: GGAATTTCC - TF have to work together because the middle of the fav sequence is more flexible, so different proteins are able
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