MGY377 Lecture 1 Review

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Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
John Brumell

Lecture 1 – An Overview of Microbiology Introduction to Microbiology - Microbiology is the study of microorganisms (or microbes) - Microbes are microscopic o Through most of their lifespan o Can only be seen through a microscope o Less than about 1 mm across o About 10 M to 10 M in size - Six major groups of microbes o Prokaryotes  Bacteria  Archaea o Eukaryotes  Algae  Protists  Fungi o Viruses - In 1990, infectious diseases were the biggest killer - In 2004, lower respiratory infections are in the top 10 but mostly in elderly due to improvements in public health - Discovery of microbes o Hooke observes small eukaryotes (1600) o Leeuwenhoek discovers bacteria (1676)  Developed lenses to look at fibers of the cloth  Developed powerful lenses to look at bacteria - Microbes are living organisms o Microbes arise only from other microbes  No spontaneous generation o Redi shows that flies do not spontaneously generate (1688) o Pasteur shows that microbes do not grow in liquid until introduced from outside (1861)  Long curved neck doesn’t allow bacteria to fall inside  Broken neck allows bacteria to fall inside and grow in medium  Discovered the germ theory of disease - Germ theory of disease o Observations  Germs can infect and grow on food o Hypothesis  Can germs infect and grow on people?  Do germs cause disease? o Hypothesis is testable  Are germs found in infected tissue?  Can transmission of germs cause disease? o Pasteur’s Theory  Transmission of germs cause disease o Scientific Theories  Explain many known observations  Provide framework for understanding  Can be tested further - Koch’s postulates o Provides means of testing hypothesis  Does this germ cause that disease? o Organisms must meet criteria  Mi
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