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Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
William Navarre

MGY377September 19 2011Gramnegative bacteriatransparent becuse of hydrolipidsnot dyes used for this kind of graphStructure of gramnegative cell wallPeriplasmic space between the inner and outer membranesInner membranetypical biological membrane composed of phospholipids primarily Most energetically stable membraneo Fatty acid chain facing each other to form bilayer structure o Hydrophilic head region forms outside o Energetically most stable structure Small molecules like water can be transported but prevent transport of charged molecules like iron Proteins in cytoplasmic membraneincluding transport system Site of proton motive force or proton gradient o Outside of membrane higher concentration of protons which creates gradient important for generating energy Periplasm Grampositive bacteria has only peptidoglycan outside the inner membrane no additional membrane No periplasmic space in gram positive bacteria Same number of hte molecule ions er volume Many proteins including enzymes that can modify Nucleases degrade incoming DNA molecules bacteria do not take up genetic material might harm cells P binding proteinstaking up nutrients from environmentspart of ABC transport Periplasmic space is NOT EMPTYcontains variety of enzymes proteins with different functions Outer membrane Structure unique to gramnegative bacteriaMicrobacteria belongs to gram positive bacteriabecause of the 16 S rRNA genes o BUT wont stain or weakly staindefinition not based ono Exception because has inner membrane has cell wall composed of many lipids ando Asymmetricphospholipid is exclusively present in inner leaflet while in LPS in outer leaflet exclusively LPSThree major components Lipid Afatty acid and two sugarsLipid A
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