Robert schumann, scenes from childhood: disjunct motion to outline harmonies (chords, melodic line goes up. Medieval: predominatnly conjunct motion, narrow range, staying within octave, almost total absence of accidentals. Countess of dia, i must sing : no harmonic elements. Giovanni pierluigi da palestrina, sanctus of the mass: eternal gifts of christ. Renaissance: each voice has its own self-contained melody, conjunct, small range. Baroque: idiomatic writing (specific to the instrument, extremes in range, disjunct writing, amidst the chaos, contains something familiar to come back to , antecedent-consequent phrases. 94: one knows where the music is going. Classical: some continuation of antecedent-consequent style, even phrases. Giacomo puccini, la boh me che gelida manina : some expectation of where it is going, but not entirely , highly animated, rhythmic, irregular metre. Historical differences of timbral preference: homogeneous instruments of similar types. Claude debussy, prelude to the afternoon of a fawn.