MUS200H1 Lecture Notes - Kamancheh, Yodeling, Mohammad-Reza Shajarian

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Published on 11 Oct 2012
School
UTSG
Department
Music
Course
MUS200H1
Professor
MUS 200 MUSIC OF THE WORLDS PEOPLE- LECTURE 2 THE ISLAMIC WORLD
Caveat
The role of music in Islam, and in the Islamic
world, is often a highly controversial subject, and
can even be a matter of life or death
My intention is to explain how music is viewed and
used by Muslims themselves
My intention is not to pass judgment, but to
understand and have respect for different
viewpoints and musical practices
Music and Religion
Music plays a role in all religions, particularly as a
way of articulating religious ritual
In most religions, music is unequivocally a means
of celebrating God
In Islam, music is viewed by some particularly
the orthodox as a mundane, sensual distraction
from the spiritual path
Music in Islam
For most Muslims, any “music” associated with
Islamic religious ritual is not called music, even if it
has musical qualities
Azan (adhan): the “call” to prayer by a muezzin
“Reading”
The Qur‟an (or Koran) is the holy book of Islam:
the word of God as revealed to his messenger,
the Prophet Muhammad (570632 CE)
It is not sung but “read” (qira‘ah, but also
mujawwad in Egypt) by a “reader” (qari)
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Qira„ah
Pronunciation, and the supremacy of the text
Segmentation
Mode
Melodic contour
Range (ambitus)
Tempo, rhythm, metre
Volume and timbre
Individuality and style
Surah 97: Al-Qadr
In the Name of Allah the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful
1. Verily, We sent it down in the night of al-Qadr.
2. And what will make you know what the night of al-Qadr is?
3. The night of al-Qadr is better than a thousand months.
4. Therein descend the angels and the Spirit by their Lord's
permission with all Decrees.
5. Peace! Until the appearance of dawn.
The role of musicality?
See Kristina Nelson‟s article (on the website)
called “Reciter and Listener”
Paradox?
Musicality on the one hand draws the listener in
and heightens the spiritual experience of the text
However, it may also compromise the
separateness of “reading” from the art of music
Group “readings”
Rhythmic recitation coordinates the reading by a
group (a religious brotherhood)
Heterophony (two slightly divergent or alternative
versions of a melodic line)
Surah al-Fatiha (opening verse of the Qur‟an
Sufism
Islamic mysticism
The science of the direct knowledge of God
Sufis believe that doctrine must be balanced by
method
Method means some form of concentration on the
reality of God through an act that helps achieve
ecstasy (union with God)
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Dhikr (or Zikr)
“Remembrance” Chanting of God‟s name
Hyperventilation that produces exhilaration and an
altered state of consciousness
Performed by Sufi brotherhoods
Qawwali
Pakistan and northern India
Performed primarily at Sufi shrines
Song form: soloists and their “parties”
Mystical Sufi poetry interspersed with socio-
religious commentary
Qawwals are professional musicians
Within the shrine, qawwali singers help bring
members of the audience to trance
Money donated to the Sheikh is then blessed and
passed on to the musicians
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
Popular qawwali singer (194998)
Remembered for his crossover into popular
genres
Part of the “world beat” scene
“Allah Hu”, and “disco-qawwali
Mast
Elements of repetition, rhythmic beats, volume,
and tempo build to a climax that totally envelops
the listener and transports him to another plane
Qawwali generates spiritual arousal (mast
„intoxication‟) and drives home the message of the
poetry
Qawwals lead the audience into and out of
ecstatic trance
Tumheñ dil lagi…
Qawwali by Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
In Urdu
It exhorts the listener to give up worldly
attachments and, however hard, to follow the path
to God, the True Love
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Document Summary

Mus 200 music of the worlds people- lecture 2 the islamic world. Music and religion: music plays a role in all religions, particularly as a way of articulating religious ritual. In most religions, music is unequivocally a means of celebrating god. In islam, music is viewed by some particularly the orthodox as a mundane, sensual distraction from the spiritual path. Music in islam: for most muslims, any music associated with. Islamic religious ritual is not called music, even if it has musical qualities: azan (adhan): the call to prayer by a muezzin. Reading : the qur an (or koran) is the holy book of islam: the word of god as revealed to his messenger, the prophet muhammad (570 632 ce) It is not sung but read (qira ah, but also mujawwad in egypt) by a reader (qari) Qira ah: pronunciation, and the supremacy of the text, segmentation, mode, melodic contour, range (ambitus, tempo, rhythm, metre, volume and timbre.

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