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Early Barque Lec Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ken Mc Leod

Baroque (1600-1750) • Early Baroque (mis-shapen pearl) • Italian Stylistic Dominance: Venice (St. Marks), Rome • Common practice period (tonality) • Patronage: Age of Absolutism (monarchies) • Composer revenue: Church, Court, Theatre! • Affections: Doctrine of Affections/Affect Baroque Musical Style • Rhythm & Meter: Propulsive (Walking Bass) • Texture: Basso Continuo (underlies all music) Figured Bass • Dynamics: Consistent – “Terraced” • Harmony: Functional Major/Minor! Chord standardization • Tone Color: Emphasis on Strings • Melody: Complex (Fortspinnung – sequencing) • Increase in instrumental music Early Opera: drama in music (combination of arts) • Forerunners: Medieval liturgical drama Madrigal Cycles • Florentine Camerata: Attempt to revive Greek drama Monody (Solo Songs -with chordal accompaniment) • Earliest Operas: Jacopo Peri, Dafne (Florence 1597) – Mythological subjects • Libretto /Librettist - the operatic text (little book) • Based on mythological plots :Orpheus myth – most prominent early subject matter • Styles of singing: Recitative, Arioso, Aria Operatic Singing styles • Recitative: pitched speech/speech rhythm - dialogue advancing plot - repeated pitches, little melody or structure - sustained chordal accompaniment, irregular rhythms • Arioso: brief moments of full melodic song • Aria: Full song – a soliloquy (internal thoughts) - melodic, strongly marked meter - coherent formal structure - orchestral accompaniment - vocal virtuosity • Chorus/Ensemble – occasionally found Claudio Monteverdi st • Last great madrigalist, 1 great Opera Composer • L’Orpheo (1607): Court of Mantua • L’Incoronazione de Poppea (1642): Public Opera in Venice – new historical plot! • L’Orfeo (1607) Mantua • L’incoronazione de Poppea (1642) Venice - Libretto by Busenello - 1st public opera • emphasis on human characters and emotions (vs. myth of Orfeo) • familiar historical subject • less use of chorus • importance of machinery – stage spectacle • blurring of sections Vocal Chamber Music • Strophic Arias, Ground Bass Arias • Monodic Style w/ Basso Continuo • Cantata to be sung -aria and recit, dramatic text- solo voice Barbara Strozzi Lagrime Mei Women in Music: Baroque Francesca Caccini st 5 operas – the 1 to be staged outside Italy! La Liberatzione di Ruggerio • Isabella Leonardi • Barbara Strozzi • Elizabeth Claude Jacquet de la Guerre Other Vocal Music: Motets • Concertato Principle (Contrast): voice vs. instruments/ solo voice vs. chorus etc. • St. Marks Venice: Willaert, de Rore, Schutz Andrea & Giovanni Gabrielli • Polychoral Motets: Cori Spezatti – divided choir (including instruments) • Heinrich Schutz “Saul” - Polychoral motet Other Vocal Genres (Opera, Cantata, Polychoral Motet) • Oratorio: Unstaged sacred drama Giacomo Carissimi Other: • Johann Fux, Gradus Ad Parnassum (Codification of Palestrina’s counterpoint) Instrumental Music: mid-late Baroque • Organ Music (great age of organ building) 2 main types: – Prelude (toccata) & Fugue – Chorale based compositions (Cantus firmus principle): Chorale Prelude – Leading Composers: Girolomo Frescobaldi, Dietrich Buxtehude, J.S. Bach Harpsichord Music 1) Theme & Variation 2) Suite: Collection of Dances: French & German varieties French Suite (Ordre): collection of dances Agréments (Ornaments) Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre Suite No. 3 in A minor Françoise Couperin: L’art de toucher le clavecin - “Vingt cinquieme Ordre” German Suite: based on 4 core dances Allemande (moderate 2ple meter) Courante (moderate 3/2-6/4 ) Sarabande (slow, stately, 3ple) Gigue (Fast 6/8) Other : Minuet, Gavotte, Chaconne Claude-Jacquet de la Guerre Suite No.3 Instrumental Genres Con’t 1) Organ: Prelude & Fugue, chorale based 2) Harpsichord: Variations, Suites (Fr & Ger) 3) Keyboard Sonata: Joseph Kuhnau 4) Ensemble Sonatas: Solo & Trio Sonata Solo Sonata = 3 players Trio Sonata = 4 players Sonata da Chiesa: 4 mvmnts S- F- S- F (F= fugal) Sonata de Camera: collection of dances Trio /solo sonatas • Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) Virtuoso violinist Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2 (church sonata) th Opera & Vocal Music in Mid 17 Cent. • Rise of cult of the singer - Castrati • Conventionalized arias – Da Capo form A B A’ (A’ embellished repeat) • 2 types of recitative: Secco/ Unaccompanied Obbligato/ Accompanied National Operatic Styles: France (Louis XIV at Versailles) Jean Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) Phillipe Quinault (librettist) Tragedy Lyric: Armide • Divertissements (ballets) • Mythological plots (glorifying King) • French recitative (irregular meter) • String Orchestra: “24 violins of the King” • French Overture: Binary Form A (slow/dotted) B (fast/fugal) Jean Phillipe Rameau (1683-1764) • Theorist: Trait de la Harmonie • Establishes triad as fundamental • Establishes Melodic Minor Scale • Establishes principle of chord inversions th th th • Recognizes 7 /9 / 11 chords • Codifies Functional
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