Class Notes (808,753)
Canada (493,377)
Music (217)
MUS111H1 (74)
Hillhouse (2)
Lecture 3

MUS300 Week 3

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George

MUS300 Music, Media, and Technology Week 3: Theoretical Approaches to Music & Culture in the 20 Centuryth Week 2 Recap • Music notation as technology th • Piano’s role in social and cultural formations in early 20 C • “Laws of media” • musicking vs reification • capitalization & industrialization of music  technoculture  analytical focus on tech and implications  tech and culture inherently connected Today’s Lecture • Technology & (mass) media’s impact on culture 1. “Frankfurt School” • Adorno & Benjiamin 2. Culture 3. Radio (briefly) 4. Toronto School • McLuhan, Innis The Frankfurt School • Walter Benjamin, Max Horkneimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse • Marxism -> neo-marxists (founders of critical theory) • Focus on culture rather than politics • Ideology, aesthetics, totalitarianism • Precursor to contemporary cultural theory • Benjamin and Adorno • Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) • Literary critic, theorist • Theodor Adorno (1903-1969) • Musicologist as well as sociologist and philosopher • Close friends, exchanged letters • “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” • What is the value of “mechanical reproduction”? • Aesthetic value of art • Origins of art in ritual • Printing press, lithography, photography, phonograph • Transforming how we see art works • The Aura • “a strange tissue of space and time: the unique apparition of a distance, no matter how near it may be” • residual magic of cult value • Aura- related to “original genuis” • Calls for replacing aura with participatory mode 1) Art now in everyday life 2) Work once “rare” is now common Spectator joins process of production (film) Empowering potential of technologies • “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” • Cultural totalitarianism by entertainment industry that we vulnerable against • Mass Conformism • Unachievable promises • Commodification of eccentricity, uniqueness: pseudo-individuality • “Art” sought for exchange value • Benjamin/Adorno: Music? Benjamin… • Popular Music? • Opposes “art for art’s sake” • Music as activity • Mass participation Adorno… • Social significance lost in mass production • Music as thing: Commodity Fetishization • Mass conformity • Music & Mass Production: Recap • Early 20 Century – Industrialization of sheet music (Taylor, Gay) – Mass production of instruments • Pianos; ukuleles; saxophones; guitars – Rise of “popular culture”(Tin Pan Alley) • Dichotomization between “high and low” culture • South Asian Musics (India): Tradition, Technology, and Mass Production • Alternative to western perspective • Different traditional system of transmission, production, performance • Major influence of recording on music and society in India and South Asia • Hindustani “Classical” Music – Foregrounds Melody and Rhythm – Transmission primarily oral: no score – Notion of authorship differs from west – Composer/performer distinction collapsed – Author not as important as interpretation (Indian music has much improv, distinction between composer and performer collapse vs Western music) • Raga – Differs from western concept of scale – Ragas associated with times of day, seasons, moods: affects • Recording in India – Gramophone Company est. London 1898 – First Indian musicians recorded in London in 1899, in India in 1902 – Motive commercial – By 1901: 75 companies • Musical Transformations • Increasing recording sophistication: “Barbarism of perfection” (Adorno) • Selectivity: some repertoire for masses, some for select audiences • De-traditionalization: associations of ragas with times of day, seasons, etc. • Time Limits: 78 RPM format limited improvisation • Technology alters form • Musical style/form creation of Western technology? • Essence of raga squeezed into three minutes? • Zohrabai Agrewali (1868-1913) • Social Transformation 1: Courtesans • Stigma: music and dance associated with courtesans • Gauhar Jan (1873-1930): recognition and fortune • Cult valueExhibition value • Released women from stigmitization • Social Transformation 2: Gharana System • Patriarchal system of transmission/education • Regulated authenticity • Recordingbreak with system • Traditionalists vs. Modernists • Contemporary Technologies: The Internet • Preserves tradition? • Archetypes • Mass Participation • Indian Music gone Global • Collaborations with western artists • 1960s counterculture: Ravi Shankar w/George Harrison • 1990s “World Music”: Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan w/Eddie Vedder • Globally circulated (Recordings then tele-technology) • Hybrid • “Hybridity Talk” Experimentation, collage, multiple identities Could be… a) Just another marketing niche(Adorno) b) A means towards liberation from tradition (Benjamin) • Asian Dub Foundation • From Music Technology workshop in East London • Anti-racist and self defence advocates • Rebel warrior • Alliances • Video: What is culture? (Williams) • In early uses, a noun of process – Something we do rather than possess • Initially: tending, cultivating (crops, animals, etc.) • Metaphorical associations come later on th th • English, German, French elaborations of its use during 15 -19 Centuries Three modern uses (Williams) 1. General process of intellectual, spiritual & aesthetic development 2. General, abstract noun that indicates a particular way of life of a people (cf. Herder, 18 th C) 3. Independent, abstract noun which describes the works and practices of intellectual and especially artistic activity (contexts of) culture • Anthropology: material production – “That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capacities or habits acquired by man as a member of society” (E.B. Tylor, 1871) • Cultural studies: symbolism & systems of signification – Adjective “cultural” relatively recent (expressive) culture • Folklore – the capacity for aesthetic experience, for sharing o
More Less

Related notes for MUS111H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.