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Lecture 5

Lecture 5.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Prof.William Bowen

Lecture 5 Instruments and Voices: - depends on the instrument producing the sound o Duration:  The brevity or length of the sound  Not all instruments can sustain a sound the same way, thus duration varies according to instrument  Ex. Piano has a decaying noise if you hold the key down, running out of breath when singing o Pitch:  The lowness or highness of the sound  Instruments have ranges where they are comfortable or not comfortable  eg diff ranges for instruments and singers o Dynamics:  The loudness or softness of a sound; VOLUME of sound  Can play notes loud or soft on a piano  Can make the volume get louder too*** o Timbre or Tone colour:  The colour of sound  Equate the quality of sound with a colour  colour of sound can vary frm one instrument to another  Ex. Bright, dark, covered o Articulation:  The separation of successive notes and how this is accomplished by the performer  Can jump notes or join notes on a piano  Can be detached or connected Can have accents (some notes louder than the other)   How you articulate the sounds - Classification Systems o Hornbostel and Sachs th  Early 20 century  Classification of instruments based on the primary sound-producing medium  Standard system for study of world music  Applies to a vast range of instruments across history and different cultures  Focus on modern or common practice instruments in western tradition based on source   Idiophones: • Vibrating solid material • Ex. Wood, metal, tapping pen on metal creates a sound Membranophones:  • Membrane making the vibration • Vibrating membrane • eg Drum  Cordophones: • Vibrating strings  Aerophones: • Air • Blowing into an object • Vibrating column of air  Electrophones: • Sounds produced electronically • Electric means or electronically amplified • Ex. Through keyboards o FAMILIES w/in Modern Orchestra  Strings: chordophones Woodwinds: aerophones   Brass: aerophones  Percussion: idiophones & membranophones  Keyboards: various (eg organ, piano)  Youtube video- Guide to the Orchestra • Benjamin Britten • Alot more string players • Balance of instruments and sounds • Trumpets have a much more penetrating sound so you don’t need much in an orchestra • string, woodwinds, brass and percussion  Strings: chordophones • Instruments with taut strings(stretched string) attached to a sound box that amplifies the sound • Pitch varied by length of the vibrating string • Played with a blow or plucked/strummed • Barber,Adagio for Strings o Smooth organic sounds, not articulated o Gradually gets louder, louder dynamic o More homogenous in that family  Woodwinds: aerophones • Instrument made of wood or metal • Player either blows across open hole or on reed(s) • Tone is produced by a column of air vibrating within a pipe that has holes along its length • Instrument is played by agitating a column of air that vibrates • Instrument changes pitch by length of the vibrating column o eg flute, clarinet, saxophone • Carter, Woodwind Quintet, IIAllegro giocoso o Even within that family, there are different sounds, colours, timbres o Different quality than the string  Brass: aerophones • Instruments with a cup-shaped mouth piece and tube that flares into a bell (has a lot to do with the shape of the instrument as well) • Lip vibration creates vibration of air in tube • Pitch varied by slide or valves • Modern instruments often made of brass or silver • Pachelbel, Canon o Different sound from woodwinds bc of production of instruments used o Have a range within family o some instruments sound brighter, more colo
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