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Economics and The Role of Musicians in Society.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Greg Johnston

MUS110 Economics & the Role of the Musician in Society November 15, 2012 Patronage Many early professional musicians were dependent on the Church of the Court for their livelihoods Outside of the Church there started to be recognized musicians Troubadours, Trouvères  Lyric poets or poet-musicians of France in the 12 and 13 centuries  Poets working the south of France, writing in Provençal, are generally termed troubadours; those of the north, writing in French, are called trouvères  Their job was to write poetry that appealed the their employer, usually full of compliments to their patron  “high class” poetry  the music was lost but lyrics and poetry still exist Jongleur  a medieval entertainer, sometimes a minstrel  they were seen as thieves or vagabonds  Adam de la Halle, Jeu de Robin et de Marion o Melody exists, but not specific instrument Mercantile system starts to develop, and more people earn money  leisure time  learn to play instruments Printing press exists, composing and printing music  could be traded and sold and circulated Public concerts  creating a venue  1637 the first opera house Opera is for upper-class entertainment, but when public opera house is built, more accessible to public  not only for nobility anymore, but for making money Opera singers need to be able to project their voices to the back of the room; therefore the Castrato A male singer who has been castrated before puberty to preserve the soprano or contralto range of his voice; supported by a man’s lungs, the voice was powerful, agile and penetrating  Tended to be tall  Long legs  Small head  Large chest capacity  Famous castrato – Farinelli Bach made quite a bit less than the super star opera singers. However, they made a lot of money but they had no children or line to pass it down to. Johann Adolf Hasse, “Se Mai Piu Saro Geloso”, Cleofide (1731) Bach-Gounod, Ave Maria  Moreschi (1858-1922) – a castrato Famous, celebrity performers was an idea that was inconceivable in the earlier centuries. Composers could be celebrities, but not performers. Depending on the instrument you played, it determined your class. Nobility had their own crowd of musicians. Bach, Brandenburg Converto No. 6, Third Movement (1721)  Viola de gamba was preferred by the nobility  The viola is most important, which was odd because the viola was the lowest socially Bach becomes a composer for a prince. But the prince got married and hi
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