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Lecture 5

MUS240H1 Lecture 5: MUS240 Lecture 5 Nationalism

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University of Toronto St. George
Alia O' Brien

MUS240 Lecture 5 Midterm: Feb 28, in class 9:10-10:15 1. Listening/Audiovisual Example • excerpts from 2 of required listening examples listed on blackboard • title, name of performer, geographic area (specific, not country) • accurate musical details of the recording, contextual details, link to broader concepts discussed in course • 1 listening not required from material  talk about musical techniques, using terms used in class (4 marks) 2. Terms/Definitions • 8 terms provided, choose 5 (2 points each) 3. Short Answer • 3 short answer questions given, pick 2 of the 3 and answer in full sentences • variations of questions at the end of lecture Songs of Love and Hate Nationalism • Nationalism, is relatively recent phenomenon • Benedict Anderson: “Imagined Communities” – 1983 o feel that you share something with people you never met o imagined because you never know the people in your nation or never met them o nationality as cultural artefact ▪ immediate by words, broadcasts etc., o Mass mediation/widespread circulation of information, ideas and commodities, a key factor of this phenomenon ▪ emergence of printing press/capitalism ▪ post-industrial capitalism and the proliferation of printing press technology emerged o He’s talking about nationalism in the particular form that it’s the emergence of the state o music is solidifying in nationalist context • Martin Stokes (2010) o music, emotion and nationalism in Egypt and Turkey respectively (“intimate publics”) o discourse is about love and politics o “intimate publics”  people experience strange and sociability through intimate sharing or love • Virginia Danielson (1998) o Wrote “The voice of Egypt” o about intimate public o how love got bad o and hopefulness of Egyptian nationalism and identity Music and the cultivation of nationalism • Philip Bohlman o “national music reflects the image of a nation” o national music turns to outside forms to create something new, but also indigenous forms – folk music ▪ combine two things to create a national music • Martin Stokes o use music to locate ourselves, music can communicate and hold for us a sense of place o music has a vital role to play from dance to collective memories • From “print capitalism” (Anderson) to (Moorman) 140: “sonorous capitalism” o took print capitalism and applies it to sound  sonorous capitalism o she’s talking about the consumption production of music th Case Study, 20 Century Egypt • 1805: stirrings of early Egyptian nationalism during the Ottoman period after Muhammad Ali seizes power • 1882-1919: Egypt under British occupation • 1919: Egyptian Revolution o Hizb al-Wafd and Saad Zaghloul o party that saw revolutionary potential like education system o to create an independent Egypt o cultural reforms • 1922: British recognition of Egyptian independence o but they still occupied the county 20 century Egyptian music • long song: performances that were hours long became much shorter, to be packaged for audio recordings o songs that were used in films o radio airplay • music went from live performance to something that circulated to the intangible media • long songs increase exposure to European art music o popular art music trend o embody modern Egyptian’s through foreign Europe instruments but also Egyptian sound and aesthetic o it was an urban music o needed to speak Arabic to enjoy the music • Firqa replace smaller groups (takht) o Takht played in chamber settings, private events and gatherings o they weren’t performing in large concert halls o Firqa is a size of an orchestra ▪ setting was much less intimate because they were larger ▪ but the sentiment conveyed in song were still intimate o typical Firqa ensemble incorporated European and middle-Eastern instruments – hybrid orchestra ▪ create a modern Egyptian sound • Umm Kuthlum o popular amongst Middle East o best known singer and performer o “Star of the East” o not a women who grew up in a urban center o study under her father’s guidance o memorize sounds and words o her family had a band o small takht ensemble o her father noticed she had a beautiful singing voice and he had her join the ensemble o for public performances, she was disguised as a boy because women could not perform in public ▪ associated with prostitution ▪ a lot of women who were publicly active were also courtesans o this changed when she rose to fame o moved to Cairo in 1923 ▪ embedded herself into the elites and arts ▪ began recording and her records sold well and career began in early 1930s ▪ maintained a cultivated image ▪ she had to be careful to create a stage persona that was acceptable to all ▪ she was combining modern and traditional conservative aesthetics o she’s a contralto o the cultivation of urban voice allowed her to win over more co
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