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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

st LECTURE 7 – NOVEMBER 1 , 2012 - I apologize for the strange grey bars – I use Evernote to keep all my notes and copied these directly from there. Obviously, the tabbing seems quite strange to my open source word processor, so it looks a bit wonky – but the information is all there! - Dynasty Four con't - Djedefre - successor/son of Khufu - transferred his court and pyramid toAbu Rowash - First king to bear the new royal titles "Son of Re" or perhaps "Son of Khufu (a god)" - Reigned for 8/11/21 years? - unfinished pyramid? - evidence to suggest it was finished - during the Roman period, they may have stripped it down to the foundation for stone - probably did reign a longer time than Manetho said - sphinx of Hetepheres II atAbu Rowash - probably the first sphinx ever in Egypt - Khafre - another son of Khufu - Khafre returned to Giza - reign may have lasted as long as 30 years - Great Sphinx - made out of bedrock that has been there for 100,000 years - face is either Djedefre or Khafre - Djedefre may have made it for his father - causeway is slanted... sphinx was there before he built his pyramid - sylistically, the face looks like Djedefre's - Valley Temple - made of giant monolithic stones encased in red granite, floor is Egyptian alabaster - polished stone statuary, king is seated holding the deed to Egypt, Horus embracing the king as a falcon. Also depiction of the sema-tawy. - Pyramid was built at a higher elevation to start, but it's smaller than Khufu's - "Khafre is the greatest" - name of pyramid - mastabas were built wherever they could fit, including rock-cut tombs from the quarry - seemed like "first come first serve" - Bikheris/Baka (Bikka) - poorly documented king - named Bikheris in Manetho - son of Khafre - Evidence at Wadi Hammamat? name found of "Baefre" - Unfinished pyramid at Zawiet el-Aryan - von Beckerath and George Reisner - Baka, the son of king Djedefre - Aiden Dodson - "Seth-Ka", son of king Khufu - Menkaure - son of Khafre - Greek tradition regards Menkaure as a pious ruler - his statuary displays new proportions of body that have not been seen before - head is tiny compared to the shoulders - activity outside of Egypt - pyramid - smallest at Giza, came to the throne late in his life - saw unfinished pyramids of his predecessors, built smaller to ensure it was finished - cased it in red granite fromAswan, 500 kilometres away - temples were made out of red brick - triads of Menkaure - Menkaure with Hathor and a nome goddess - each nome probably had a statue made of him with Hathor - still has a bit of limestone casing at the top - from this point on, subterranean passageways became the norm - fragment of a magical knife inscribed with Menkaure's mother, Khamerernebty I - Shepseskaf - Shepseskaf is probably the brother of Menkaure - reign was only 4 years - Mastabat el' Fara'un - South Saqqara - 99.6 m long, 74.4 m broad, only 2 steps - sarcophagus was decorated with palace facade, first of its kind we've seen - Thamphthis/Khentakawes of Giza - According to Winfried Seipel and HermannAlexander Schlogl - Thampthis could have been Queen Khentakawes I - Helck - Khentakawes I could have been the mother of Thampthis, who may have been the son of king Shepsekhaf - inscription on her mastaba proves she ruled in her own right, and is also the mother of future kings - well into the end of the 6th dynasty, her tomb is venerated for generations - remembered as someone who is worthy as praise and worship - her cult seems to go on long after the big pyramids and their cults - Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure are forgotten before she is - Government and economic activities in the Old Kingdom - the centre of the administration in this period is the palace - the principal aim of the administration was to organize the food supply for the king's palace and to maintain the king's cult - from the 4th Dynasty the highest office held is the title of TATi, conventionally translated as vizier - royal construction activities are concentrated in the area between Meidum andAbu Rowash (The Greater Saqqara Necropolis) - cemeteries ans sites outside of this area were "provincial" - Administration of the Old Kingdom - loose control - the provincial administration was under the control of local chiefs - the local chiefs were responsible to the central government, but more or less free to do what the liked inside of their area - only for special reasons (i.e. pyramid building) were local resources withdrawn from provinces - tight control - the central government had full control over provincial resources - the whole country was organized from the centre. Local rulers were installed by the central government. - BurialArchitecture and Traditions in the 4th Dynasty - royal burials: standard features of a pyramid complex - valley temple - where the body is embalmed and prepared for the afterlife - causeway - body proceeds along this route to the pyramid - boundary wall - pyramid temple - where the pharaoh is worshipped in his deceased form - pyramid - cult pyramid - where the ka of the king resides - Religion in the fourth dynasty - cult of the king: the idea of the divine monarch who guaranties the stability
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