Lecture 11 - 11th and 12th Dynasties

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 8, 2012 Lecture 10 - 11th and 12 Dynasties Mentuhotep III • Son of Mentuhotep II • Reign: • Turin Canon - 12 years • Mandate: protection of Egypt • Expeditions: • Punt, led by Heneu • This would only be possible if he were in a strong position • His mandate is to protect Egypt, not unite • Alot of building projects, all with religious function and as a reminder of his right to rule: • Elephantine El kab • • Tod • Armant • Abydos Thebes • • Most temples are mudbrick and not very permanent • Celebrated a Heb-sed, scene from Temple ofArmant • Wearing red drown Above him is falcon hours protecting him • • Goddess nekhbet (?) of upper Egypt • And king in uraeus • Tomb was never finished • Robbed out in antiquity Mentuhotep IV • Son of Imi, secondary wife of Mentuhotep II or Mentuhotep III • Missing on most king lists Heir to the throne? • • Other claimants: • Quaker Intef • Sekhentibre • Menekhkare • Expedition to Wadi Hammamat lead by VizierAmenemhat who may be Mentuhotep IV’s suc- cessor • Image: Mentuhotep IV inscription from Wadi Hammamat • God Min receiving worship of the king • Scene of Heb-sed - is he celebrating? Or preparing for the jubilee of another king? He didn’t rule long enough Government and Administration of the 11th Dynasty • Change of ideology OK = implicit statement • • King’s word is law and fact NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 8, 2012 Lecture 10 - 11th and 12 Dynasties • MK = explicit reasoning • Reasons why they rule: can control and protect borders Through reasoning and actions, not just because they saw so • • An OK king would never have to explain his right to rule • MK explains as part of building religious building and his control • Re-establishing a Central government • Mentuhotep II appointed nomarchs • Viziers have increasing duties • Military action and trade expeditions, perhaps even direct control (going with army and en- voys) • Governor of Upper Egypt (OK) and Governor of Lower Egypt (MK) Two governors now so more balance • Religion in the Eleventh Dynasty • Montu: deity of Thebes and 11th Dynasty • Hathor • Attache dot the wealth of Egypt through mining expeditions • Coffin Texts: becoming Osiris • All people become Osiris in their death • But had to be of a speck social status as it is expensive So :. Everyone who could afford to could become Osiris • • Funerary customs and tombs: existence of social inequality and stratification • Image: • Montu the war god of thebes Sun disk and tow plums • • Falcon head Types of 11th Dynasty Burials 1. Surface graves, with or without a coffin 2. Shaft graves, usually with a coffin deposited in a subsurface chamber accessibly by a rectan- gular shaft 3. Tombs with the burial within sever several coffins and a stone sarcophagus in a stone-mantled subsurface chamber accessibly by a corridor • Shwabti figures take over your roll as a laborer in the afterlife Conclusions • Reign of last kng something of a mystery • Amenemhat I, the vizier of Mentuhotep IV becomes king Dynasty 12 • Known as the the Kings of the Residence Ity-tawy • Haven’t actually found this city yet • It is somewhere near the entrance to the Faiyum • Duration: NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 8, 2012 Lecture 10 - 11th and 12 Dynasties • Turin Canon: 8 kings, 213 years, 1 month and 17 days • **Documentation: Autobiographies of local governors • • Royal and non-royal stele (especially fromAbydos) • Letters (especially from Lahun) • Literature Amenemhat I • Amenemhat is not royal. He is taking the throne because he is worthy of it • Son of Senusret and Nephrite from the south • Vizier of Mentuhotep IV • Founded new capital Ity-Tawy • By choosing Ity-tawy he is making a conscious break from Thebes • Midpoint site, not the south as previous dynasty • Allows him to be a visible presence and easily accessible from north and south • Amenemhat in literature: • The Prophecy of Nephrite • Asiatic infiltrators • This prophecy is written in his reign, perhaps to mythify his rule and give him a right • Walls-of-the-Ruler in Eastern Delta • Series of forts that run along the eastern Delta where the Sinai starts • These fortresses help protect and control who comes in and who comes out • Not only just trade but people, and that’s important • Goes south into nubia • According to year 29 Stele in Korosko located between 1st and 2nd cataract he establishes con- tact and control in Nubia • Bulding projects: • Bubastis El-Chatting • • Tansi • Karnak - temple of Mut • Worship ofAmun, Mut and their son • Abydos - Osiris • Dendera - Hathor • Memphis - Ptah • Amenemhat I: Heb-Sed • Osiris beard, linking him with kingship • Hathor andAnubis extending the ankh, giving him life • He appears to be assassinated • First hear of it in the Instructions ofAmenemhat • Sleeping in his bed, seems to be an attempted cue • Co-regency between Amenemhat I and Sesostris I • First real co-regency NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 8, 2012 Lecture 10 - 11th and 12 Dynasties • First of the 12th dynasty kings • Build a pyramid for himself Not an exact copy of OK traditions • • But similar in style and execution: • Valley temple, causeways, mortuary temple, south pyramid, etc • But it is not well constructed Sesostris I • Ruled together as co-regent with Amenmhat I • Reign: 45 years • Continued expansion in Nubia: • Two major expeditions: • Year 10, Year 18 • Fortress of Buhen • Very big, with thick walls • Two sets of walls: one around the interior fort • Seems
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